Prevalence and trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in hospitalized patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: laboratory-based surveillance mapping of antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology

Introduction We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S . aureus bacteraemia (SAB). METHODS: Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S . aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mec A and nuc . SCC mec and spa -typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: S . aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCC mec type was SCC mec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa -typing discovered 47 different spa -types. The five (87%) most common spa- types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCC mec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB.