Mean ± Standard Deviation Intake Values for 1–<10-Year-Old South African Children for Application in the Assessment of the Inflammatory Potential of Their Diets Using the DII® Method: Developmental Research

This study aimed to develop a set of mean &plusmn; standard deviation (SD) intake values for South African (SA) children for 36 of the 45 food parameters included in the original Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII<sup>&reg;</sup>) tool. The SA food composition database contains 30 of the 45 food parameters included in the original DII<sup>&reg;</sup>, and a supplementary database was developed for six of the food parameters not included in the SA database. The SA child mean &plusmn; SD intake of macronutrients, micronutrients and select flavonoids was calculated by age in years, using eight data sets from dietary surveys conducted in SA in the last three decades. A total sample of 5412 children was included in the calculation of the mean &plusmn; SD. The current study sample was determined to be representative of 1&ndash;&lt;10-year-old children in SA, and the plausibility of the mean intake values was confirmed by being in line with age-appropriate recommendations. Furthermore, an increase in energy, macronutrient, and most micronutrient intakes with increase in age was evident. The generated mean &plusmn; SD values for SA children can be used for calculation of the inflammatory potential of the dietary intake of SA children in the age range of 1&ndash;&lt;10-year-old children.