Synergism between urinary prothrombin fragment 1 and urine: a comparison of inhibitory activities in stone-prone and stone-free population groups

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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM / FESCC

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De Gruyter


University of Cape Town

South African blacks rarely form kidney stones compared with whites. This study investigated whether purified urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1) derived from blacks is a more potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystallisation than that from whites. UPTF1 was purified from the urine of both population groups and their inhibitory activities were compared in a cross-over design in which each protein was tested in ultrafiltered urine from both population groups. Coulter Multisizer, [14C]-oxalate deposition and scanning electron microscopy experiments were used to monitor crystallisation. The study has demonstrated for the first time that UPTF1 promotes nucleation and that inhibitory activity is synergistically dependent upon urine composition. The activity of the whites' UPTF1 was greater than that of the blacks in the whites' urine (e.g. particle size decrease: 31.7% vs. 25.2%), while the blacks' UPTF1 was superior to that of the whites in the blacks' urine (e.g. particle size decrease: 46.5% vs. 32.4%). In addition, when tested in their respective endogenous urines, the blacks' UPTF1 demonstrated superior inhibitory activity on an absolute scale (e.g. particle size decrease: 46.5% vs. 31.7%). Thus, the urine composition of black South Africans may influence their UPTF1 conformation, conferring greater efficacy for inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation.