Epidemiological profile of patients with end stage renal disease in a referral hospital in Cameroon

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the epidemiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and knowledge about the spectrum renal disease is very limited. This study is on the profile of patients with ESRD in a referral hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: Medical records of patients with ESRD covering a 10-year period of activities of the Douala General Hospital were reviewed. Data were retrieved on socio demographic, and clinical data such as major comorbidities, the presumed aetiology of ESRD, blood pressure, biological variables and renal replacement therapy. RESULTS: In all 863 patients were included with 66% being men. Mean age was 47.4years overall, 48.9 in men and 44.5 in women (p<0.001). The main background aetiologies of ESRD were hypertension (30.9%), glomerulonephritis (15.8%), diabetes (15.9%), HIV (6.6%) and unknown (14.7%). Participants with HIV, glomerulonephritis or unknown background nephropathy were younger, more likely to be women, to be single and unemployed, while those with hypertension and/or diabetes were older, more likely to be men, to be either married or widow, and to be retired or working in the public sector. A total of 677 patients started haemodialysis with decreasing trend across age quartiles (p=009), and variation across background nephropathies (p<0.001). Emergency dialysis unplanned on a temporary catheter occurs in 88.3% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed substantial gender and age differentials in the socio-demographic features and background nephropathy in patients with ESRD in this setting. The likelihood of starting maintenance dialysis varied across background nephropathies, driven at least in part by age differences across background nephropathies.