Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in urban adult Cameroonians according to three common estimators of the glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional study

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major threat to the health of people of African ancestry. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of CKD among adults in urban Cameroon. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of two months duration (March to April 2013) conducted at the Cite des Palmiers health district in the Littoral region of Cameroon. A multistage cluster sampling approach was applied. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was based on the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the predictors of CKD. RESULTS: In the 500 participants with a mean age of 45.3+/-13.2years included, we observed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (60.4%), hypertension (38.6%) and diabetes (2.8%). The mean eGFR was 93.7+/-24.9, 97.8+/-24.9 and 99.2+/-31.4ml/min respectively with the MDRD, CG and CKD-EPI equations. The prevalence of albuminuria was 7.2% while the prevalence of decreased GFR (eGFR<60ml/min) and CKD (any albuminuria and/or eGFR<60ml/min) was 4.4 and 11% with MDRD, 5.4 and 14.2% with CG, and 8.8 and 10% with CKD-EPI. In age and sex adjusted logistic regression models, advanced age, known hypertension and diabetes mellitus, increasing body mass index and overweight/obesity were the predictors of albuminuria, decreased GFR and CKD according to various estimators. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of CKD in urban adults Cameroonian, driven essentially by the commonest risk factors for CKD.