Bent tail radio sources as tracers of galaxy clusters at high redshift and SMBH mass estimates

Doctoral Thesis


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Bent tail radio sources (BTRSs) are radio galaxies which have jets that show a characteristic C‐shape that is believed to be due to ram pressure caused by the motion of the galaxy through the ambient medium. They are generally found in galaxy clusters in the local Universe. They have already been used in observations as tracers of galaxy clusters at redshifts of up to z _ 1. They have, however, been shown to be numerous in galaxy groups as well. The ability to find high redshift galaxy clusters is important in cosmology because they are important cosmological probes. According to the _ CDM model, galaxy clusters form around redshift of z _ 2 and finding clusters of halo mass greater than 1014 M_ at redshift greater than z = 2:5 would disprove the current concordance model. Finding galaxy clusters at those redshifts is more feasible with the new generation of radio telescopes and the upcoming square kilometer array (SKA). In this work we look at some SMBH mass measurements, which are crucial in the determination of the correlations between the SMBH mass and some galaxy characteristics including jet length and luminosity. The high redshift SMBH mass measurement methods are calibrated using local Universe correlations. This makes SMBH mass measurement an important aspect in the study of high redshift radio galaxies and hence BTRSs. We use cosmological simulations from the MareNostrum Universe simulation to look at the efficacy of using BTRSs as tracers of clusters assuming the ram pressure is the cause of the jet bending. This is the first step in predicting the possible number of BTRSs that we may observe with the SKA. We find that SMBH masses can be measured up to redshift of z = 4:5 using the virial mass estimator method. The BTRSs are equally likely to be found in galaxy clusters and galaxy groups in the local Universe. This means that around 50% of the BTRSs that we are likely to find at high redshift will be in galaxy clusters. However, finding a pair of BTRSs in close proximity is a sign of a galaxy cluster environment. These results are still dependent on the resolution of degeneracies in our understanding of the duty cycles of AGN radio jets, projection effects of the radio jets, the environmental dependence of radio‐loudness in galaxies and other open questions.