- ItemOpen AccessTransmitting the Transition: Media Events and Post-Apartheid South African National Identity(2012) Evans, Martha; Glenn, IanSouth Africa came late to television, and its enjoyment of the medium was diminished by the fact that just as a national television service was acquired, the rest of the world began to shun the country because of apartheid. While the ruling National Party feared the integrative effects of television, they did not foresee the negative impact that exclusion from globally unifying broadcasts would have on political rule. Television helped to facilitate the sporting and cultural bans and played an important, mostly unexamined role in the transition to democracy. While South Africa was barred from participating in some of television's greatest global attractions (including sporting events such as the Olympics and contests such as Miss World), with the release of Nelson Mandela from prison – one of the world's most memorable media events – came a proliferation of large-scale live broadcasts that attracted the gaze and admiration of the rest of the world. At the same time, the country was permitted to return to international competition, and its readmittance played out on television screens across the world. These events were pivotal in shaping and consolidating the country's emerging post-apartheid national identity. Using Dayan and Katz's theory of “media events” – those historic and powerful live broadcasts that mesmerise mass audiences – this thesis assesses the socio-political effect of live broadcasting on South Africa's transition to democracy and the effects of such broadcasts on post-apartheid nationhood. The thesis follows events chronologically and employs a three-part approach: firstly, it looks at the planning behind some of the mass televised events, secondly, it analyses the televisual content of some of the events; and thirdly it assesses public responses to events, as articulated in newspapers at the time. Live broadcasting was used first by the rest of the world as a means of punishing apartheid South Africa and then by the emerging NP–ANC alliance as a means of legitimating the negotiation process. In particular, media events served as a powerful means of securing support for the country's first democratic president, Nelson Mandela. At the same time, the apparent transparency of live broadcasting helped to rejuvenate the poor reputation of the South African Broadcasting Corporation, perceived as a government mouthpiece under apartheid and, like South Africa itself, in need of an image overhaul. The thesis argues that just as print media had a powerful influence on the development of Afrikaner nationalism, so the “liveness” of television helped to consolidate the “newness” of the post-apartheid South African national identity.
- ItemOpen AccessInvestigation of the Genetic Basis of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis(2010) Evans, Joanna; Segal, HeidiThe emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, coupled with the time it takes to perform phenotypic drug susceptibility testing of this organism, makes the treatment of tuberculosis increasingly difficult. Several genotypic assays for the rapid detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis have been developed, but the sensitivity with which these assays identify resistance differs geographically. Additionally, the identification of phenotypically resistant isolates with no identifiable genotypic marker suggests that other factors, such as differential gene expression, may play a role in the development of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. This investigation aims to both develop and evaluate rapid genotypic assays for the detection of resistance to both first- and second-line drugs in M. tuberculosis, and to investigate the role of alternative sigma factors in the progression to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis. The sensitivity of the GenoType® MTBDRplus [HAIN Life science] assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance was evaluated in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates with varying phenotypic susceptibility profiles from Cape Town, South Africa. Additionally, the use of multiplex allele-specific-PCR assays for the detection of two commonly identified isoniazid resistance determinants was evaluated in parallel. The GenoType® MTBDRplus [HAIN Lifescience] assay identified rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates with sensitivities of 93.5% and 82.1%, respectively, and similar results were obtained using multiplex allele-specific-PCR assays for the detection of isoniazid resistance. Novel multiplex allele-specific-PCR assays for the detection of resistance to ofloxacin and kanamycin/amikacin in M. tuberculosis were designed, and their ability to correctly identify resistance to these second-line drugs was evaluated. Multiplex allele-specific-PCR assays for the detection of GyrA D94G and rrs A1401G correctly identified ofloxacin and kanamycin/amikacin resistance in M. tuberculosis in 64.3% and 80.0% of phenotypically resistant isolates, respectively. Whilst the development of genotypic assays for the rapid detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis show promise, variation in the geographical distribution of specific resistance determinants necessitates that phenotypic drug susceptibility testing be performed in parallel. However, screening for GyrA D94G and A90V together with rrs A1401G would identify up to 88.0% of XDR-TB in this region prior to obtaining phenotypic drug susceptibility results, making these assays extremely useful as a rapid genotypic tool for the detection of second-line drug resistance in this setting. The role of alternative sigma factor expression in the progression to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis was investigated in rifampicin mono-resistant M. tuberculosis H37Rv isogenic mutants using real-time quantitative PCR assays. Investigation of rifampicin mono-resistant M. tuberculosis H37Rv isogenic mutants indicated an association between specific RpoB mutations and an enhanced ability to grow in the presence of isoniazid. Furthermore, mutants that were able to grow in the presence of isoniazid displayed upregulation of sigE, which encodes a sigma factor involved in the maintenance of cell wall structure. A role for differential gene expression induced by the use of alternative sigma factors in the development of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis was demonstrated in rifampicin mono-resistant M. tuberculosis H37Rv isogenic mutants, and further confirmed in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis.
- ItemOpen AccessThe didactic utilization of the Bible and Midrash in the plays of Zalman Aaron Lison(2006) Yannay, TonyBeing a teacher in primary schools for many years made me aware of the power of dramatization as a didactic device. Then I came across Dr. Reisenberger's research project and preservation of all Hebrew Literature written in South Africa, and so I became familiar with the Hebrew plays of Zalman Aaron Uson. These plays were published between 1944 and 1951 in "Barkaal', which was the only Hebrew journal that was published in South Africa at that time. Notwithstanding the fact that Barkaals readership was primarily adults, the plays' target audience was Jewish children in the higher classes of primary school. (early teens). I then discovered that Zalman Aaron Uson was a teacher who taught Jewish studies to South African Jewish children in government primary schools. He wrote the plays in order to familiarize the children with various biblical narratives that he believed had to be taught. The idea behind the dramatization was not only to impart knowledge of the characters and events, but also to force the children to memorize the plays, which are in Hebrew; thus, providing the pupils with knowledge of their Religious Tradition and linguistic Heritage in a vibrant, endearing and effective way. This thesis highlights Lison's inimitable way of selection and utilization of Bible and Midrash as a didactic tool. It sets out the power of literature in general, and drama, as means to induce empathy and identification. This is followed by a detailed literary analysis of the plays with particular attention to the tracing of the Midrash from which Uson drew the dramatic details, the backdrop sets, names of secondary characters etc. The effectiveness of Lison's method is verified through the interviews with his past students, who are currently mature adults. A special note has to be added regarding the use of archival material - from Lison's bequest that the family so kindly allowed access to, as well as semistructured qualitative interviews with Lison's son, Dr. Michael Uson, and two of Lison's past students, who currently live in Israel. All the above concurred my hypothesis of the effectiveness of Lison's method and points out to his exceptional educational astuteness. The thesis includes copies of the plays in the appendix. The language utilized is Hebrew
- ItemOpen AccessTowards a meaningful engagement approach to mining-induced displacements in South Africa: a legal comparative perspective(2023) Mathiba, Gaopalelwe Lesley; Mostert, Hanri; Van Schalkwyk, LouieA few decades ago, it might have been fair to argue that because mining activity is intrinsic to the country's economic growth and development, then everything else negative about mining should just be excused as a 'necessary evil' or 'acceptable collateral damage'. But not now. One of the negative impacts of mining activity is displacement of people. Gaining access to a mineral resource requires displacing local communities to make way for mining operations. This phenomenon is known as mining-induced displacement. In South Africa, Ghana and elsewhere, mining-induced displacements often result in the loss and damage of both tangible and non-tangible assets belonging to the displaced persons. These include homes, livestock, valuable resources, cultural sites, productive lands, social structures, tenure security over traditional lands and livelihoods. With mining-induced displacements, there is also a risk that displaced persons may find themselves homeless, marginalised, jobless and without access to their sustained livelihoods while having lost social cohesion and a sense of belonging. All these have negative bearing not only on the socio-economic realm of those affected, but cultural and moral interests as well. Beyond all these realities, there is not much we know about how and the extent to which meaningful engagement remedy - a dynamic adjudicative strategy devised by the South African courts - may present a solution to the unresolved issues around mining-induced displacements; how the courts have protected the vulnerable against evictions through this remedy; and how such protection could potentially be extrapolated to cover mine-affected communities against displacements in this context. That said, this thesis is an attempt at establishing the potential relationship between meaningful engagement and displacements in mining law. The thesis seeks to answer the overarching research question: How robust and consultative is the regulatory framework in addressing mining-induced displacements in South Africa and Ghana, and to what extent are these frameworks complied with in practice? As far as could be established, there has not been any comprehensive research undertaken to establish the potential nexus between meaningful engagement and displacement within the broader context of mining law in South Africa and Ghana. As such, this thesis advances the proposition that one way of looking at the problem of mining-induced displacement is by considering how the application of meaningful engagement remedy may be extended into mining law to address this unabated problem. The study makes several findings, at a broader level, on how consultative (akin to meaningful engagement) are regulatory frameworks on mining-induced displacements in the two examined jurisdictions. It is found that both jurisdictions have varying degrees of legal protection for the mine-affected communities against displacements. It is also found that there are notable international law norms and standards against displacements that may be instructive to and offer the best frame of reference from which the examined jurisdictions may improve their domestic response to the problem. The stronghold and novelty of this thesis lies in it being the first and by far the most comprehensive analytical research on the potential normative link between meaningful engagement as an adjudicative strategy and mining-induced displacement as a socio-economic and human rights issue from a comparative perspective with a spotlight on Ghana and South Africa; as well as in identifying and analysing more efficient legal mechanisms in international law to deal with the problem.
- ItemOpen AccessJohn Company at the Cape : a history of the agency under Pringle (1794-1815), based on a study of the "Cape of Good Hope factory records"(1959) Arkin, MarcusFor much of its long and influential career, the English East India Company (familiarly known as “John Company”) was not directly concerned with the Cape of Good Hope, and that Colony held no more than a very minor place on the fringes of its commercial affairs.