Electronic countermeasures applied to passive radar

Doctoral Thesis


Permanent link to this Item
Journal Title
Link to Journal
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Passive Radar (PR) is a form of bistatic radar that utilises existing transmitter infrastructure such as FM radio, digital audio and video broadcasts (DAB and DVB-T/T2), cellular base station transmitters, and satellite-borne illuminators like DVB-S instead of a dedicated radar transmitter. Extensive research into PR has been performed over the last two decades across various industries with the technology maturing to a point where it is becoming commercially viable. Nevertheless, despite the abundance of PR literature, there is a scarcity of open literature pertaining to electronic countermeasures (ECM) applied to PR. This research makes the novel contribution of a comprehensive exploration and validation of various ECM techniques and their effectiveness when applied to PR. Extensive research has been conducted to assess the inherent properties of the lluminators of Opportunity to identify their possible weaknesses for the purpose of applying targeted ECM. Similarly, potential jamming signals have also been researched to evaluate their effectiveness as bespoke ECM signals. Whilst different types of PR exist, this thesis focuses specifically on ECM applied to FM radio and DVB-T2 based PR. The results show noise jamming to be effective against FM radio based PR where jamming can be achieved with relatively low jamming power. A waveform study is performed to determine the optimal jamming waveform for an FM radio based PR. The importance of an effective direct signal interference (DSI) canceller is also shown as a means of suppressing the jamming signal. A basic overview of counter-ECM (ECCM) is discussed to counter potential jamming of FM based PR. The two main processing techniques for DVB-T2 based PR, mismatched and inverse filtering, have been investigated and their performance in the presence of jamming evaluated. The deterministic components of the DVB-T2 waveform are shown to be an effective form of attack for both mismatched filtering and inverse filtering techniques. Basic ECCM is also presented to counter potential pilot attacks on DVB-T2 based PR. Using measured data from a PR demonstrator, the application and effectiveness of each jamming technique is clearly demonstrated, evaluated and quantified.