Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Bersama engleriana Fruits Extracts and Their Potential Inhibitory Effect on Resistant Bacteria

The absence of novel, safe, and effective bactericide is an urgent concern worldwide and remains a challenge in scientific communities. The unique proprieties of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) synthesized from plant extracts make them a suitable candidate to overcome these limitations. Herein, we synthesized SNPs from Bersama engleriana fruit (BEfr) extracts and determined their potential antibacterial activity and mode of action. SNPs were synthesized from BEfr methanolic fruit extracts at 25 and 70 ◦C, and the antibacterial effectiveness of SNPs against bacterial strains was investigated. The surface plasmon resonance peaked at 430.18 and 434.08 nm, respectively, for SNPs synthesized at 25 and 70 ◦C, confirming SNPs synthesis. BEfr-SNPs had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) range of 0.234 to >50 µg/mL, which was 30-fold greater than extract alone (MIC of 500 µg/mL). BEfrSNPs-25 ◦C was potent against six bacterial strains (S. aureus, S. enterica, MRS. aureus, K. pneumonia, and S. pyogenes), with MIC range of 0.339 to 6.25 µg/mL. The mode of action of BEfr-SNPs-25 ◦C was achieved by an MRSA bacteria strain outer membrane and DNA nucleotide linkage. These results suggest that our synthesized SNPs, especially BEfr-SNPs-25 ◦C, demonstrated an enhanced antibacterial effect and could be potential candidates for bacterial infection treatment.