Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Tenofovir and Tenofovir Alafenamide for HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Foreskin Tissue

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Abstract
Background: HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has focused predominantly on protective efficacy in receptive sex, with limited research on the dosing requirements for insertive sex. We pre-clinically assessed the ex vivo pharmacokinetic&ndash;pharmacodynamic (PK&ndash;PD) profile of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in foreskin tissue. Methods: Inner and outer foreskin explants were exposed to serial dilutions of TFV or TAF prior to addition of HIV-1<sub>BaL</sub> at a high (HVT) or a low viral titer (LVT). Infection was assessed by measurement of p24 in foreskin culture supernatants. TFV, TAF and TFV&ndash;diphosphate (TFV&ndash;DP) concentrations were measured in tissues, culture supernatants and dosing and washing solutions. Results: Dose&ndash;response curves were obtained for both drugs, with greater potency observed against LVT. Inhibitory equivalency mimicking oral dosing was defined between 1 mg/mL of TFV and 15 &micro;g/mL of TAF against HVT challenge. Concentrations of TFV&ndash;DP in foreskin explants were approximately six-fold higher after ex vivo dosing with TAF than with TFV. Statistically significant negative linear correlations were observed between explant levels of TFV or TFV&ndash;DP and p24 concentrations following HVT. Conclusions: Pre-clinical evaluation of TAF in foreskin explants revealed greater potency than TFV against penile HIV transmission. Clinical evaluation is underway to support this finding.
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