Browsing by Subject "Employment"
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- ItemMetadata onlyAn analysis of formal sector employment in South Africa: Its implications for poverty and future economic strategies(Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, 2015-05-28) Abedian, Iraj; Schneier, Steffen
- ItemMetadata onlyChanges in education, employment and earnings in South Africa: A cohort analysis(2015-05-28) Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray
- ItemMetadata onlyCountry of origin and employment prospects among immigrants: An analysis of south-south and north-south migrants to South Africa(2015-05-28) Peters, Amos C; Sundaram, Asha
- ItemMetadata onlyEmployment status, security, and the management of risk: a study of workers in Kwamsane, KwaZulu-Natal(Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, 2015-05-28) Lund, Francis; Ardington, Cally
- ItemOpen AccessExperience of Violence and Socioeconomic Position in South Africa: A National Study(Public Library of Science, 2007) Doolan, Katherine; Ehrlich, Rodney; Myer, LandonBACKGROUND: Violence is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in South Africa and needs to be researched from a public health perspective. Typically in violence research, socioeconomic position is used in the analysis to control for confounding. Social epidemiology approaches this variable as a primary determinant of interest and is used in this research to better understand the aetiology of violence in South Africa. We hypothesised that measures of socioeconomic position (employment, education and household wealth) would be inversely related to violence at the individual and household levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data came from the1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS). Measures of socioeconomic position used were employment, education and household wealth. Eighty-eight people (0.2%) received treatment for a violent injury in the previous 30 days and 103 households (0.9%) experienced a violent death in the previous year. Risk factors for violence at the individual level included employment (41% of those who experienced violence were employed vs. 27% of those who did not, p = 0.02), and education (those who experienced violence had on average, one year more education than those who did not, p = 0.04). Belonging to a household in the wealthiest quintile was protective against violence (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.89). In contrast, at the household level all three measures of socioeconomic position were protective against the experience of a violent death. The only association to persist in the multivariate analysis was that between the wealth of the household and violence at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance Our hypothesis was supported if household wealth was used as the measure of socioeconomic position at the individual level. While more research is needed to inform the conflicting results observed between the individual and household levels, this analysis has begun to identify the disparities across the socioeconomic structure with respect to violent outcomes.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring the relationship between obesity and the probability of gaining employment in the context of the South African labour market(2022) von Widdern, Chloe; Daniels, RezaObesity is a growing public health concern that is being confronted by both developed and developing countries. South Africa is no exception, facing the highest burden of obesity amongst African countries. Using two waves of data from the National Income Dynamics Study, this study aims to investigate the relationship between obesity and employment status for working age individuals in the context of the South African labour market. This study contributes to existing literature on this subject by explicitly accounting for potential simultaneity and endogeneity between obesity and employment. Given the hypothesised two-way causal relationship between obesity and unemployment, two different models are used to assess whether this issue exists for the dataset; a bivariate probit model to assess if there is a bivariate relationship between obesity and employment, and a recursive bivariate probit model to assess if obesity is an endogenous regressor of employment. A change in state univariate probit model is then implemented across the two waves to better understand if fluctuations in weight status are a result of labour market state transitions. The results of the study show that obesity and employment are independent in the bivariate probit models and obesity is an exogenous regressor of employment status in the recursive bivariate probit models. Changes in labour market state do not have a significant impact on the probability of transitioning to obese compared to no changes in labour market state, bar transitioning from not economically active to employed, which increases the probability of becoming obese. The findings suggest that, in the South African labour market context, obesity and employment are not related, indicating that there are other underlying factors, such as nutritional intake and genetic composition, that may contribute to fluctuations in weight status. The results suggest that obesity is prolific in South Africa, and impacts individuals across the entire distribution for labour market status and income.
- ItemMetadata onlyGetting ahead or falling behind: Findings from the second wave of the National Income Dynamics Study(Development Southern Africa, 2015-05-28) Woolard, Ingrid; Leibbrandt, Murray; Daniels, Reza Che
- ItemOpen AccessHealth worker migration from South Africa: causes, consequences and policy responses(2015) Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Mathole, Thubelihle; Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel; Dambisya, Yoswa; Runnels, Vivien; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy LynnBackgroundThis paper arises from a four-country study that sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health worker migration, its consequences, and the strategies countries have employed to mitigate negative impacts. The four countries—Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa—have historically been “sources” of skilled health workers (SHWs) migrating to other countries. This paper presents the findings from South Africa.MethodsThe study began with a scoping review of the literature on health worker migration from South Africa, followed by empirical data collected from skilled health workers and stakeholders. Surveys were conducted with physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. Interviews were conducted with key informants representing educators, regulators, national and local governments, private and public sector health facilities, recruitment agencies, and professional associations and councils. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Interview data were analyzed thematically.ResultsThere has been an overall decrease in out-migration of skilled health workers from South Africa since the early 2000s largely attributed to a reduced need for foreign-trained skilled health workers in destination countries, limitations on recruitment, and tighter migration rules. Low levels of worker satisfaction persist, although the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD) policy (2007), which increased wages for health workers, has been described as critical in retaining South African nurses. Return migration was reportedly a common occurrence. The consequences attributed to SHW migration are mixed, but shortages appear to have declined. Most promising initiatives are those designed to reinforce the South African health system and undertaken within South Africa itself.ConclusionsIn the near past, South Africa’s health worker shortages as a result of emigration were viewed as significant and harmful. Currently, domestic policies to improve health care and the health workforce including innovations such as new skilled health worker cadres and OSD policies appear to have served to decrease SHW shortages to some extent. Decreased global demand for health workers and indications that South African SHWs primarily use migratory routes for professional development suggest that health worker shortages as a result of permanent migration no longer pertains to South Africa.
- ItemOpen AccessThe impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on employment in Khayelitsha(2007) Coetzee, CelesteThis paper examines the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) on labour force participation of people living with HIV/AIDS in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Cox Proportional Hazard Models with stratum effects for three medical clinics, and Accelerated Failure Time Models with individual specific unobserved shared effects (frailty), are estimated for transitions from inactivity to unemployment, and transitions from unemployment into employment, using a longitudinal data set. The findings of this study indicate that HAART leads to greater activity in the labour market, but there was not a strong effect on re-entry into employment.
- ItemMetadata onlyLabour force withdrawal of the elderly in South Africa(CSSR and SALDRU, 2015-05-28) Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray; Ranchhod, Vimal
- ItemMetadata onlyLabour market transitions in South Africa: What can we learn from matched Labour Force Survey data?(Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, 2015-05-28) Ranchhod, Vimal; Dinkelman, Taryn
- ItemMetadata onlyLazy Rotten Sons? Relatedness, gender and the intra-household allocation of work and leisure in South Africa(Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, 2015-05-28) Wittenberg, Martin
- ItemOpen AccessThe occupational mobility of black workers in the Witwatersrand building industry from 1960 with some reference to the occupational mobility of the Coloured people in the western Cape building industry(1976) Scheiner, Philip; Thomas, WolfgangThe first aim of this study is to describe a process of change in the labour market structure of one specific industry and to describe the dynamics of adjustments resulting from the shortages of White artisan labour. Attention is to be given to the strains in the labour market and the resultant process of adjustment through government intervention or industrial council negotiations, as well as the ramifications for the market participants and the pattern of earnings. It was decided to study only one industry since available data on Black occupational advancement was insufficiently detailed on a macro-basis to test any but the most superficial hypotheses. One more specific objective following from this aim is to test the relevance of the neo-classical labour market theories as described by authors like Rothschild. Such a focus on the micro-perspective of one industry is important to obtain a clearer and more accurate representation of the facts, causes and consequences of the shifting colour bar in South Africa. There still seems to be much scope for such studies, which theorise and try to explain present labour market developments. Hopefully, such investigations might lead to the amelioration of some of these strains. The second major aim of this study is to assess critically the costs and benefits that have accrued to the various interested parties - the Master Builders Associations, the registered trade unions and Black workers (Coloured, Asian and African) following the lifting of certain statutory barriers to Black occupational advancement in one industry. In addition we want to assess the terms under which Black workers have been admitted to the skilled trades. In this regard it may be mentioned that the official policy objective of narrowing the wage gap is apparently to be achieved by the more productive utilisation of Black labour. In July 1973 the Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister stated that ''the government has accepted in principle, that it is desirable to narrow the disparity between the levels of living of the various population groups". This is to be achieved by Black incomes "rising at a somewhat faster rate than those of Whites to the extent that this can be justified on the basis of their changing position in the labour pattern".
- ItemMetadata onlyPublic Works as a Response to Labour Market Failure in South Africa(CSSR and SALDRU, 2015-05-28) McCord, Anna
- ItemMetadata onlyRevisiting wage subsidies: How pro-poor is a South African wage subsidy likely to be?(Development Southern Africa, 2015-05-28) Burns, Justine; Edwards, Lawrence; Pauw, Karl
- ItemMetadata onlySocial Networks, Employment and Worker Discouragement: Evidence from South Africa(Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, 2015-05-28) Godlonton, Susan; Burns, Justine
- ItemMetadata onlySocial protection and labour market outcomes of youth in South Africa(2015-05-28) Ardington, Cally; Barnighausen, Till; Case, Anne; Menendez, Alicia
- ItemMetadata onlySurviving unemployment without state support: Unemployment and household formation in South Africa(CSSR and SALDRU, 2015-05-28) Klasen, Stephen; Woolard, Ingrid