Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study

dc.contributor.authorJewkes, Rachelen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSikweyiya, Yandisaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMorrell, Roberten_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDunkle, Kristinen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-20T16:03:22Z
dc.date.available2015-12-20T16:03:22Z
dc.date.issued2011en_ZA
dc.description.abstractObjective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. METHODS: 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. RESULTS: In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important.en_ZA
dc.identifier.apacitationJewkes, R., Sikweyiya, Y., Morrell, R., & Dunkle, K. (2011). Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study. <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15908en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationJewkes, Rachel, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Robert Morrell, and Kristin Dunkle "Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study." <i>PLoS One</i> (2011) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15908en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationJewkes, R., Sikweyiya, Y., Morrell, R., & Dunkle, K. (2011). Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 6(12), e29590. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029590en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Jewkes, Rachel AU - Sikweyiya, Yandisa AU - Morrell, Robert AU - Dunkle, Kristin AB - Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. METHODS: 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. RESULTS: In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. DA - 2011 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0029590 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2011 T1 - Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study TI - Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15908 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/15908
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029590
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationJewkes R, Sikweyiya Y, Morrell R, Dunkle K. Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2011; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15908.en_ZA
dc.language.isoengen_ZA
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_ZA
dc.publisher.departmentResearch Officeen_ZA
dc.publisher.facultyThe Enterpriseen_ZA
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Cape Town
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_ZA
dc.rights.holder© 2011 Jewkes et alen_ZA
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0en_ZA
dc.sourcePLoS Oneen_ZA
dc.source.urihttp://journals.plos.org/plosoneen_ZA
dc.subject.otherRape and sexual assaulten_ZA
dc.subject.otherViolent crimeen_ZA
dc.subject.otherIntimate partner violenceen_ZA
dc.subject.otherPersonalityen_ZA
dc.subject.otherBehavioren_ZA
dc.subject.otherAfricansen_ZA
dc.subject.otherHIVen_ZA
dc.subject.otherSchoolsen_ZA
dc.titleGender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional studyen_ZA
dc.typeJournal Articleen_ZA
uct.type.filetypeText
uct.type.filetypeImage
uct.type.publicationResearchen_ZA
uct.type.resourceArticleen_ZA
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