Triploid induction in the South African abalone, Haliotis midae

Master Thesis


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University of Cape Town

An investigation was undertaken to determine whether triploidy could be induced and improve the growth rate of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. From the polar body counts at 17 °C the release times of polar body 1 and 2 were found to be at 12 - 15 min. post insemination (pi.) and 33-36 min. pi. respectively. Cytochalasin B (CB) (0.5mg. 1-¹ seawater) and elevated temperature (30 °C) were used as stresses to induce triploidy. CB induced 48.4% polar body 1 and 70.9 % polar body 2 triploid larvae at 20 hrs pi. At 120 hrs pi. induction rates were 55.5% and 62.4% respectively. Temperature induction was more successful, producing 92.9% polar body 1 and 86.4% polar body 2 triploid larvae at 20 hrs pi. This success was still evident at 120 hrs pi, where 71.1 % polar body 1 and 62.5% polar body 2 triploid larvae were produced. In the CB induction, where polar body 1 was retained, there was a pronounced production of tetraploid larvae (34. 2%). It appeared that CB affected the ova's resistance to polyspermy, which was found to be dependent on both CB concentration and the amount of excess sperm present. At 0.4 mg 1-¹ CB in seawater, 86.5% triploids and 0% tetraploids were produced. However, on the addition of sperm, 25.4% triploids and 69% tetraploids resulted. CB (0.5 mg 1-¹ ) in seawater produced 42.6%> tetraploids which, after the addition of sperm, increased even further to 50. l % pentaploids. Larval survival was found to be low overall with only 17% and 22% of control (diploid) animals surviving the rearing period, in the temperature and CB treatments respectively. The survival rates of the polar body 2 treatment were 11 % and 15% whilst those of the polar body 1 treatment were 7% and 11 %. Although these percentages indicated a difference in survival rates between the CB and temperature inductions, the actual numbers of larvae surviving were the same. The polar body 1 triploid larval survival was significantly less than both control and polar body 2 triploid animals.

Bibliography: leaves 72-80.