Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review

dc.contributor.authorMaynard-Smith, Lauraen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLarke, Natashaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorPeters, Jurgensen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLawn, Stephenen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-30T09:27:06Z
dc.date.available2015-10-30T09:27:06Z
dc.date.issued2014en_ZA
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND:Although the evidence base regarding the use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) when testing respiratory samples is well established, the evidence base for its diagnostic accuracy for extrapulmonary and sputum-scarce pulmonary TB when testing non-respiratory samples is less clearly defined. METHODS: A systematic literature search of 7 electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, Global Health Database, Scopus and Cochrane Database) was conducted to identify studies of the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert assay when testing non-respiratory samples compared with a culture-based reference standard. Data were extracted and study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated on a per-sample basis, stratified by sample type and smear microscopy status and summarised using forest plots. Pooled estimates were calculated for groups with sufficient data. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with a total of 6,026 non-respiratory samples were included. Among the 23 studies comparing Xpert and culture done on the same samples, sensitivity was very heterogeneous with a median sensitivity of 0.83 (IQR, 0.68-0.94) whereas specificities were typically very high (median, 0.98; IQR, 0.89-1.00). The pooled summary estimates of sensitivity when testing smear-positive and smear-negative samples were 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-1.00) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.60-0.80), respectively. Pooled summary estimates of sensitivity varied substantially between sample types: lymph node tissue, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.72-0.99); tissue samples of all types, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.94); pleural fluid, 0.34 (95% CI, 0.24-0.44); gastric aspirates for diagnosis of sputum-scarce pulmonary TB, 0.78 (IQR, 0.68 - 0.85). Median sensitivities when testing cerebrospinal fluid and non-pleural serous fluid samples were 0.85 (IQR, 0.75-1.00) and 0.67 (IQR, 0.00-1.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: Xpert detects with high specificity the vast majority of EPTB cases with smear-positive non-respiratory samples and approximately two-thirds of those with smear-negative samples. Xpert is a useful rule-in diagnostic test for EPTB, especially when testing cerebrospinal fluid and tissue samples. In addition, it has a high sensitivity for detecting pulmonary TB when using gastric aspirate samples. These findings support recent WHO guidelines regarding the use of Xpert for TB diagnosis from non-respiratory samples.en_ZA
dc.identifier.apacitationMaynard-Smith, L., Larke, N., Peters, J., & Lawn, S. (2014). Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review. <i>BMC Infectious Diseases</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14498en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationMaynard-Smith, Laura, Natasha Larke, Jurgens Peters, and Stephen Lawn "Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review." <i>BMC Infectious Diseases</i> (2014) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14498en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationMaynard-Smith, L., Larke, N., Peters, J. A., & Lawn, S. D. (2014). Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review. BMC infectious diseases, 14(1), 709.en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Maynard-Smith, Laura AU - Larke, Natasha AU - Peters, Jurgens AU - Lawn, Stephen AB - BACKGROUND:Although the evidence base regarding the use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) when testing respiratory samples is well established, the evidence base for its diagnostic accuracy for extrapulmonary and sputum-scarce pulmonary TB when testing non-respiratory samples is less clearly defined. METHODS: A systematic literature search of 7 electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, Global Health Database, Scopus and Cochrane Database) was conducted to identify studies of the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert assay when testing non-respiratory samples compared with a culture-based reference standard. Data were extracted and study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated on a per-sample basis, stratified by sample type and smear microscopy status and summarised using forest plots. Pooled estimates were calculated for groups with sufficient data. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with a total of 6,026 non-respiratory samples were included. Among the 23 studies comparing Xpert and culture done on the same samples, sensitivity was very heterogeneous with a median sensitivity of 0.83 (IQR, 0.68-0.94) whereas specificities were typically very high (median, 0.98; IQR, 0.89-1.00). The pooled summary estimates of sensitivity when testing smear-positive and smear-negative samples were 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-1.00) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.60-0.80), respectively. Pooled summary estimates of sensitivity varied substantially between sample types: lymph node tissue, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.72-0.99); tissue samples of all types, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.94); pleural fluid, 0.34 (95% CI, 0.24-0.44); gastric aspirates for diagnosis of sputum-scarce pulmonary TB, 0.78 (IQR, 0.68 - 0.85). Median sensitivities when testing cerebrospinal fluid and non-pleural serous fluid samples were 0.85 (IQR, 0.75-1.00) and 0.67 (IQR, 0.00-1.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: Xpert detects with high specificity the vast majority of EPTB cases with smear-positive non-respiratory samples and approximately two-thirds of those with smear-negative samples. Xpert is a useful rule-in diagnostic test for EPTB, especially when testing cerebrospinal fluid and tissue samples. In addition, it has a high sensitivity for detecting pulmonary TB when using gastric aspirate samples. These findings support recent WHO guidelines regarding the use of Xpert for TB diagnosis from non-respiratory samples. DA - 2014 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1186/s12879-014-0709-7 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - BMC Infectious Diseases LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2014 T1 - Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review TI - Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14498 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/14498
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-014-0709-7
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationMaynard-Smith L, Larke N, Peters J, Lawn S. Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic review. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14498.en_ZA
dc.language.isoengen_ZA
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltden_ZA
dc.publisher.departmentDesmond Tutu HIV Centreen_ZA
dc.publisher.facultyFaculty of Health Sciencesen_ZA
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Cape Town
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licenseen_ZA
dc.rights.holder2014 Maynard-Smith et al.; licensee BioMed Central.en_ZA
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0en_ZA
dc.sourceBMC Infectious Diseasesen_ZA
dc.source.urihttp://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/en_ZA
dc.subject.otherTuberculosisen_ZA
dc.subject.otherExtrapulmonaryen_ZA
dc.subject.otherXpert MTB/RIFen_ZA
dc.subject.otherGeneXperten_ZA
dc.subject.otherDiagnostic accuracyen_ZA
dc.subject.otherSystematic reviewen_ZA
dc.titleDiagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis when testing non-respiratory samples: a systematic reviewen_ZA
dc.typeJournal Articleen_ZA
uct.type.filetypeText
uct.type.filetypeImage
uct.type.publicationResearchen_ZA
uct.type.resourceArticleen_ZA
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