Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing

dc.contributor.advisorNicol, Marken_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorKaba, Mamadouen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorClaassen, Shantelleen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-03T14:11:13Z
dc.date.available2015-12-03T14:11:13Z
dc.date.issued2015en_ZA
dc.description.abstractBackground: Meconium microbiota have recently gained great interest; however very few studies have included meconium specimens when longitudinally characterizing the infant GIT microbiota. This study therefore aimed to longitudinally characterize meconium microbiota profiles during the first seven months of life and to compare these profiles with those from maternal faecal specimens using quality controlled Illumina MiSeq sequencing data. Methods: We sampled infant meconium and maternal faecal specimens at birth, as well as two subsets of infant faecal specimens at 4-12 and 20-28 weeks of life. We extracted nucleic acid from faecal specimens using the automated QIAsymphony ® SP instrument. Using Illumina MiSeq technology, we sequenced the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We determined whether sufficient reads were sequenced using accumulation curves; whether any contamination occurred; and whether our sequencing approach was reproducible. The relative abundances of taxonomically classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and the Shannon diversity and Bray Curtis dissimilarity indices served to characterize faecal specimens from participants. Log ratio biplots and generalized linear mixed models served to statistically determine differences between faecal bacterial profiles. Results: Faecal specimens were collected from 90 mothers and 107 infants at birth, 72 infants at 4-12 and 36 infants at 20 28 weeks of age. We classified OTUs from two non-template controls which were indicative of potential contamination. Correcting for contamination resulted in a loss of 10 % of OTUs classified. Our reproducibility analysis correlated with increased concentrations of template used during library preparation. Based on diversity measures, meconium specimens harboured the most diverse bacterial profiles. The highest proportions of OTUs classified from meconium belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria (60 %), while the phylum Firmicutes was most abundant at 4-12 weeks (49 %) and 20-28 weeks (64 %) of life. The phylum Actinobacteria was at its highest at 4-12 weeks of age (26 %) and its increased proportions were associated with breastfeeding at 6-10 weeks of life. Firmicutes constituted the majority (79 %) of bacteria from maternal faecal specimens. No mother- infant pairs clustered at any of the time points studied, but infant bacterial profiles became more adult-like with increased age. An increase in infant age significantly affected bacterial proportions of 87 OTUs. Interestingly, we observed that infants exposed to HIV had higher proportions of the genus Leuconostoc and higher diversity indices compared to HIV unexposed infants at 4-12 weeks of age. Conclusion: Our study highlights that reproducibility may be worsened by the use of low template concentrations during library preparation, which may also skew diversity measures. We conclude that meconium is not sterile and that infant faecal bacterial profiles become more adult-like with increased age.en_ZA
dc.identifier.apacitationClaassen, S. (2015). <i>Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing</i>. (Thesis). University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15542en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationClaassen, Shantelle. <i>"Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing."</i> Thesis., University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15542en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationClaassen, S. 2015. Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing. University of Cape Town.en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Thesis / Dissertation AU - Claassen, Shantelle AB - Background: Meconium microbiota have recently gained great interest; however very few studies have included meconium specimens when longitudinally characterizing the infant GIT microbiota. This study therefore aimed to longitudinally characterize meconium microbiota profiles during the first seven months of life and to compare these profiles with those from maternal faecal specimens using quality controlled Illumina MiSeq sequencing data. Methods: We sampled infant meconium and maternal faecal specimens at birth, as well as two subsets of infant faecal specimens at 4-12 and 20-28 weeks of life. We extracted nucleic acid from faecal specimens using the automated QIAsymphony ® SP instrument. Using Illumina MiSeq technology, we sequenced the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We determined whether sufficient reads were sequenced using accumulation curves; whether any contamination occurred; and whether our sequencing approach was reproducible. The relative abundances of taxonomically classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and the Shannon diversity and Bray Curtis dissimilarity indices served to characterize faecal specimens from participants. Log ratio biplots and generalized linear mixed models served to statistically determine differences between faecal bacterial profiles. Results: Faecal specimens were collected from 90 mothers and 107 infants at birth, 72 infants at 4-12 and 36 infants at 20 28 weeks of age. We classified OTUs from two non-template controls which were indicative of potential contamination. Correcting for contamination resulted in a loss of 10 % of OTUs classified. Our reproducibility analysis correlated with increased concentrations of template used during library preparation. Based on diversity measures, meconium specimens harboured the most diverse bacterial profiles. The highest proportions of OTUs classified from meconium belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria (60 %), while the phylum Firmicutes was most abundant at 4-12 weeks (49 %) and 20-28 weeks (64 %) of life. The phylum Actinobacteria was at its highest at 4-12 weeks of age (26 %) and its increased proportions were associated with breastfeeding at 6-10 weeks of life. Firmicutes constituted the majority (79 %) of bacteria from maternal faecal specimens. No mother- infant pairs clustered at any of the time points studied, but infant bacterial profiles became more adult-like with increased age. An increase in infant age significantly affected bacterial proportions of 87 OTUs. Interestingly, we observed that infants exposed to HIV had higher proportions of the genus Leuconostoc and higher diversity indices compared to HIV unexposed infants at 4-12 weeks of age. Conclusion: Our study highlights that reproducibility may be worsened by the use of low template concentrations during library preparation, which may also skew diversity measures. We conclude that meconium is not sterile and that infant faecal bacterial profiles become more adult-like with increased age. DA - 2015 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2015 T1 - Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing TI - Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15542 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/15542
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationClaassen S. Dynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencing. [Thesis]. University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 2015 [cited yyyy month dd]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15542en_ZA
dc.language.isoengen_ZA
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Clinical Laboratory Sciencesen_ZA
dc.publisher.facultyFaculty of Health Sciencesen_ZA
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Cape Town
dc.subject.otherMedical Microbiologyen_ZA
dc.titleDynamics of faecal bacterial populations in early infancy as determined by massively parallel sequencingen_ZA
dc.typeMaster Thesis
dc.type.qualificationlevelMasters
dc.type.qualificationnameMSc (Med)en_ZA
uct.type.filetypeText
uct.type.filetypeImage
uct.type.publicationResearchen_ZA
uct.type.resourceThesisen_ZA
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