The impact of HIV status and antiretroviral treatment on TB treatment outcomes of new tuberculosis patients attending co-located TB and ART services in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

BackgroundThe implementation of collaborative TB-HIV services is challenging. We, therefore, assessed TB treatment outcomes in relation to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) among TB patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics in Cape Town, South Africa.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study, all new TB patients aged ≥ 15years who registered and initiated TB treatment between 1 October 2009 and 30 June 2011 were identified from an electronic database. The effects of HIV-infection and ART on TB treatment outcomes were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model, in which treatment success was the reference outcome.ResultsThe 797 new TB patients included in the analysis were categorized as follows: HIV- negative, in 325 patients (40.8%); HIV-positive on ART, in 339 patients (42.5%) and HIV-positive not on ART, in 133 patients (16.7%). Overall, bivariate analyses showed no significant difference in death and default rates between HIV-positive TB patients on ART and HIV-negative patients. Statistically significant higher mortality rates were found among HIV-positive patients not on ART compared to HIV-negative patients (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53–6.91). When multivariate analyses were conducted, the only significant difference between the patient categories on TB treatment outcomes was that HIV-positive TB patients not on ART had significantly higher mortality rates than HIV-negative patients (adjusted OR 4.12; 95% CI 1.76–9.66). Among HIV-positive TB patients (n = 472), 28.2% deemed eligible did not initiate ART in spite of the co-location of TB and ART services. When multivariate analyses were restricted to HIV-positive patients in the cohort, we found that being HIV-positive not on ART was associated with higher mortality (adjusted OR 7.12; 95% CI 2.95–18.47) and higher default rates (adjusted OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.15–4.47).ConclusionsThere was no significant difference in death and default rates between HIV-positive TB patients on ART and HIV negative TB patients. Despite the co-location of services 28.2% of 472 HIV-positive TB patients deemed eligible did not initiate ART. These patients had a significantly higher death and default rates.