Importance of Conserved N-domain Residues Thr 441 , Glu 442 , Lys 515 , Arg 560 , and Leu 562 of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase for MgATP Binding and Subsequent Catalytic Steps: PLASTICITY OF THE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING SITE

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The Journal of Biological Chemistry

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Nine single mutations were introduced to amino acid residues Thr441, Glu442, Lys515, Arg560, Cys561, and Leu562 located in the nucleotide-binding domain of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, and the functional consequences were studied in a direct nucleotide binding assay, as well as by steady-state and transient kinetic measurements of the overall and partial reactions of the transport cycle. Some partial reaction steps were also examined in mutants with alterations to Phe487, Arg489, and Lys492. The results implicate all these residues, except Cys561, in high affinity nucleotide binding at the substrate site. Mutations Thr441 --> Ala, Glu442 --> Ala, and Leu562 --> Phe were more detrimental to MgATP binding than to ATP binding, thus pointing to a role for these residues in the binding of Mg2+ or to a difference between the interactions with MgATP and ATP. Subsequent catalytic steps were also selectively affected by the mutations, showing the involvement of the nucleotide-binding domain in these reactions. Mutation of Arg560 inhibited phosphoryl transfer but enhanced the E1PCa2 --> E2P conformational transition, whereas mutations Thr441 --> Ala, Glu442 --> Ala, Lys492 --> Leu, and Lys515 --> Ala inhibited the E1PCa2 --> E2P transition. Hydrolysis of the E2P phosphoenzyme intermediate was enhanced in Glu442 --> Ala, Lys492 --> Leu, Lys515 --> Ala, and Arg560 --> Glu. None of the mutations affected the low affinity activation by nucleotide of the phosphoenzyme-processing steps, indicating that modulatory nucleotide interacts differently from substrate nucleotide. Mutation Glu442 --> Ala greatly enhanced reaction of Lys515 with fluorescein isothiocyanate, indicating that the two residues form a salt link in the native protein.