Renal safety of lithium in HIV-infected patients established on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate containing antiretroviral therapy: analysis from a randomized placebo-controlled trial

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BioMed Central


University of Cape Town

Background: The prevalence of bipolar disorder in HIV-infected patients is higher than the general population. Lithium is the most effective mood stabiliser, while tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is frequently used as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both TDF and lithium are associated with renal tubular toxicity, which could be additive, or a pharmacokinetic interaction may occur at renal transporters with a decrease in TDF elimination. Objective: We report on the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease formula in participants who received ART including TDF and were enrolled in a 24 week randomised trial of lithium versus placebo in patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Methods: We included HIV-infected adults with cognitive impairment established on ART for at least 6 months with a suppressed viral load attending public sector ART clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. We excluded participants with an eGFR or increase in potassium between the two arms during the 24 weeks. Conclusions: We found that 24-week treatment of HIV-infected patients with lithium and TDF did not result in increased nephrotoxicity.