Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'?

dc.contributor.authorGabriels, Garyen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLambert, Mikeen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Peteen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorWiesner, Lubbeen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHiss, Donavonen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-07T08:51:37Z
dc.date.available2015-12-07T08:51:37Z
dc.date.issued2015en_ZA
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Nutritional supplements are used or experimented with by consumers, notably these are; competitive and recreational athletes of all ages, and 'weekend warriors'. As a consequence the supplement industry has grown to meet the increasing demand. A Global Industry Analysts Inc. report indicates that the herbal supplement market has not declined during the worldwide recession, but in fact exhibited steady growth over the period 2008 to 2009. It is anticipated that the market will reach US$93.15 billion by the year 2015. These supplements may contain adulterated substances that may potentially have harmful short - and long-term health consequences to the consumer. "Scrap Melamine" is such an example, which has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of several cats, dogs and pigs. In China in 2008, reports described very severe health effects in infants and young children. At the time over 294 000 infants were screened and diagnosed with urinary tract stones and sand-like calculi associated with melamine in milk products, of which 50 000 infants were hospitalised, and at least six associated deaths, recorded. The extent that melamine contamination occurs in nutritional supplements is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether commercially available nutritional and traditional supplement products contain melamine, even though they are not declared by the manufacturer on the product label. METHODS: A total of 138 nutritional supplements products were obtained from (i) direct purchases from shops, pharmacies and outlets, (ii) directly from consumers, and (iii) from suppliers, manufacturers and distributors. The products were laboratory analysed for melamine, using Tandem Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. RESULTS: Forty-seven % of all the products (n=138) tested positive for melamine. Eight-two % of the South African produced products (n=27) tested positive and 58 % of the products imported into South Africa (n=50) tested positive. The median concentration estimate for melamine in the products tested were, 6.0 mug/g for the 138 supplements tested, 8.9 mug/g for South African produced products, and 6.9 mug/g for products imported into South Africa. CONCLUSION: The melamine (undeclared on product label) levels detected in the nutritional supplements products investigated were within the Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) limit guidelines of 200 mug/g as set by WHO and others. Melamine over exposure within the context of the nutritional supplements consumption in the products investigated should not be of concern to the consumer provided the recommended guidelines of daily product use are adhered to. Further investigation is warranted to determine, (i) the link of melamine as (part) substitute for the perceived total declared protein content on the product label, (ii) cyanuric and uric acid presence in the supplement products that could form chemical-complex formation with melamine and/or analogues that could cause adverse health effects.en_ZA
dc.identifier.apacitationGabriels, G., Lambert, M., Smith, P., Wiesner, L., & Hiss, D. (2015). Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'?. <i>Nutrition Journal</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15642en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationGabriels, Gary, Mike Lambert, Pete Smith, Lubbe Wiesner, and Donavon Hiss "Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'?." <i>Nutrition Journal</i> (2015) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15642en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationGabriels, G., Lambert, M., Smith, P., Wiesner, L., & Hiss, D. (2015). Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements-Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and ‘Weekend Warriors’?. Nutrition journal, 14(1), 1-7.en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Gabriels, Gary AU - Lambert, Mike AU - Smith, Pete AU - Wiesner, Lubbe AU - Hiss, Donavon AB - BACKGROUND: Nutritional supplements are used or experimented with by consumers, notably these are; competitive and recreational athletes of all ages, and 'weekend warriors'. As a consequence the supplement industry has grown to meet the increasing demand. A Global Industry Analysts Inc. report indicates that the herbal supplement market has not declined during the worldwide recession, but in fact exhibited steady growth over the period 2008 to 2009. It is anticipated that the market will reach US$93.15 billion by the year 2015. These supplements may contain adulterated substances that may potentially have harmful short - and long-term health consequences to the consumer. "Scrap Melamine" is such an example, which has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of several cats, dogs and pigs. In China in 2008, reports described very severe health effects in infants and young children. At the time over 294 000 infants were screened and diagnosed with urinary tract stones and sand-like calculi associated with melamine in milk products, of which 50 000 infants were hospitalised, and at least six associated deaths, recorded. The extent that melamine contamination occurs in nutritional supplements is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether commercially available nutritional and traditional supplement products contain melamine, even though they are not declared by the manufacturer on the product label. METHODS: A total of 138 nutritional supplements products were obtained from (i) direct purchases from shops, pharmacies and outlets, (ii) directly from consumers, and (iii) from suppliers, manufacturers and distributors. The products were laboratory analysed for melamine, using Tandem Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. RESULTS: Forty-seven % of all the products (n=138) tested positive for melamine. Eight-two % of the South African produced products (n=27) tested positive and 58 % of the products imported into South Africa (n=50) tested positive. The median concentration estimate for melamine in the products tested were, 6.0 mug/g for the 138 supplements tested, 8.9 mug/g for South African produced products, and 6.9 mug/g for products imported into South Africa. CONCLUSION: The melamine (undeclared on product label) levels detected in the nutritional supplements products investigated were within the Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) limit guidelines of 200 mug/g as set by WHO and others. Melamine over exposure within the context of the nutritional supplements consumption in the products investigated should not be of concern to the consumer provided the recommended guidelines of daily product use are adhered to. Further investigation is warranted to determine, (i) the link of melamine as (part) substitute for the perceived total declared protein content on the product label, (ii) cyanuric and uric acid presence in the supplement products that could form chemical-complex formation with melamine and/or analogues that could cause adverse health effects. DA - 2015 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1186/s12937-015-0055-7 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - Nutrition Journal LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2015 T1 - Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'? TI - Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'? UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15642 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/15642
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-015-0055-7
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationGabriels G, Lambert M, Smith P, Wiesner L, Hiss D. Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'?. Nutrition Journal. 2015; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15642.en_ZA
dc.language.isoengen_ZA
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltden_ZA
dc.publisher.departmentDivision of Clinical Pharmacologyen_ZA
dc.publisher.facultyFaculty of Health Sciencesen_ZA
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Cape Town
dc.rightsThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licenseen_ZA
dc.rights.holder2015 Gabriels et al.en_ZA
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0en_ZA
dc.sourceNutrition Journalen_ZA
dc.source.urihttp://www.nutritionj.com/en_ZA
dc.subject.otherNutritional supplementsen_ZA
dc.subject.otherInformation labels and warningsen_ZA
dc.subject.otherUric aciden_ZA
dc.subject.otherCyanuric aciden_ZA
dc.subject.otherPesticidesen_ZA
dc.subject.otherProteinen_ZA
dc.subject.otherLaboratory screen testingen_ZA
dc.titleMelamine contamination in nutritional supplements - Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'?en_ZA
dc.typeJournal Articleen_ZA
uct.type.filetypeText
uct.type.filetypeImage
uct.type.publicationResearchen_ZA
uct.type.resourceArticleen_ZA
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