Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent

dc.contributor.authorHuveneers, Charlieen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorRogers, Paul Jen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSemmens, Jayson Men_ZA
dc.contributor.authorBeckmann, Crystalen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKock, Alison Aen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorPage, Braden_ZA
dc.contributor.authorGoldsworthy, Simon Den_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-23T12:38:46Z
dc.date.available2015-11-23T12:38:46Z
dc.date.issued2013en_ZA
dc.description.abstractElasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm -1 , using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.en_ZA
dc.identifier.apacitationHuveneers, C., Rogers, P. J., Semmens, J. M., Beckmann, C., Kock, A. A., Page, B., & Goldsworthy, S. D. (2013). Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent. <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15365en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationHuveneers, Charlie, Paul J Rogers, Jayson M Semmens, Crystal Beckmann, Alison A Kock, Brad Page, and Simon D Goldsworthy "Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent." <i>PLoS One</i> (2013) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15365en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationHuveneers, C., Rogers, P. J., Semmens, J. M., Beckmann, C., Kock, A. A., Page, B., & Goldsworthy, S. D. (2012). Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent. PloS one, 8(5), e62730-e62730. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062730en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Huveneers, Charlie AU - Rogers, Paul J AU - Semmens, Jayson M AU - Beckmann, Crystal AU - Kock, Alison A AU - Page, Brad AU - Goldsworthy, Simon D AB - Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm -1 , using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. DA - 2013 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0062730 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2013 T1 - Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent TI - Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15365 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/15365
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationHuveneers C, Rogers PJ, Semmens JM, Beckmann C, Kock AA, Page B, et al. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent. PLoS One. 2013; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15365.en_ZA
dc.language.isoengen_ZA
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_ZA
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Biological Sciencesen_ZA
dc.publisher.facultyFaculty of Scienceen_ZA
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Cape Town
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_ZA
dc.rights.holder© 2013 Huveneers et alen_ZA
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0en_ZA
dc.sourcePLoS Oneen_ZA
dc.source.urihttp://journals.plos.org/plosoneen_ZA
dc.subject.otherSharksen_ZA
dc.subject.otherElectric fielden_ZA
dc.subject.otherBehavioren_ZA
dc.subject.otherEquipmenten_ZA
dc.subject.otherFoamen_ZA
dc.subject.otherSealsen_ZA
dc.subject.otherElectrodesen_ZA
dc.subject.otherSwimmingen_ZA
dc.titleEffects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrenten_ZA
dc.typeJournal Articleen_ZA
uct.type.filetypeText
uct.type.filetypeImage
uct.type.publicationResearchen_ZA
uct.type.resourceArticleen_ZA
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