Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?

dc.contributor.authorHartstone-Rose, Adam
dc.contributor.authorStynder, Deano D
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-08T07:16:07Z
dc.date.available2021-10-08T07:16:07Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.description.abstractCarnivorans, the members of the order Carnivora, exhibit wide dietary diversity – from overwhelmingly herbivorous species (like the giant and red pandas) to species that specialise in the consumption of flesh (like the hypercarnivorous felids). Throughout the evolution of this order, many craniodental forms have emerged and gone extinct – notably the sabretooth felids that existed until the late Pleistocene. However, one carnivoran lineage, remarkable for its extreme masticatory adaptations, persists – the bone-cracking hyaenids. Three of the four extant members of this family (Crocuta crocuta, Hyaena hyaena and Parahyaena brunnea) are among the most durophagous mammals to have ever lived. The fourth extant hyaenid – the aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) – also exhibits impressive, although wholly different, masticatory adaptations as one of the most derived mammalian insectivores. How and when did the level of durophagy evident in extant bone-cracking hyenas evolve, and how do Mio-Pliocene hyenas compare to the extant members of the order in terms of their own dietary specialisations? An examination of the premolars of the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids from Langebaanweg, South Africa suggests that modern levels of durophagy appeared relatively recently. Results from an analysis of dental radii-of-curvature and premolar intercuspid notches suggest that these hyenas were neither bone crackers nor flesh specialists, but were dietary generalists.
dc.identifier.apacitationHartstone-Rose, A., & Stynder, D. D. (2013). Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?. <i>South African Journal of Science</i>, 109(43226), 1 - 10. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/34772en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationHartstone-Rose, Adam, and Deano D Stynder "Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?." <i>South African Journal of Science</i> 109, 43226. (2013): 1 - 10. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/34772en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationHartstone-Rose, A. & Stynder, D.D. 2013. Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?. <i>South African Journal of Science.</i> 109(43226):1 - 10. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/34772en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn0038-2353
dc.identifier.issn1996-7489
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Hartstone-Rose, Adam AU - Stynder, Deano D AB - Carnivorans, the members of the order Carnivora, exhibit wide dietary diversity – from overwhelmingly herbivorous species (like the giant and red pandas) to species that specialise in the consumption of flesh (like the hypercarnivorous felids). Throughout the evolution of this order, many craniodental forms have emerged and gone extinct – notably the sabretooth felids that existed until the late Pleistocene. However, one carnivoran lineage, remarkable for its extreme masticatory adaptations, persists – the bone-cracking hyaenids. Three of the four extant members of this family (Crocuta crocuta, Hyaena hyaena and Parahyaena brunnea) are among the most durophagous mammals to have ever lived. The fourth extant hyaenid – the aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) – also exhibits impressive, although wholly different, masticatory adaptations as one of the most derived mammalian insectivores. How and when did the level of durophagy evident in extant bone-cracking hyenas evolve, and how do Mio-Pliocene hyenas compare to the extant members of the order in terms of their own dietary specialisations? An examination of the premolars of the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids from Langebaanweg, South Africa suggests that modern levels of durophagy appeared relatively recently. Results from an analysis of dental radii-of-curvature and premolar intercuspid notches suggest that these hyenas were neither bone crackers nor flesh specialists, but were dietary generalists. DA - 2013 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town IS - 43226 J1 - South African Journal of Science LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PY - 2013 SM - 0038-2353 SM - 1996-7489 T1 - Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa? TI - Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa? UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/34772 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/34772
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationHartstone-Rose A, Stynder DD. Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?. South African Journal of Science. 2013;109(43226):1 - 10. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/34772.en_ZA
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Archaeology
dc.publisher.facultyFaculty of Science
dc.sourceSouth African Journal of Science
dc.source.journalissue43226
dc.source.journalvolume109
dc.source.pagination1 - 10
dc.source.urihttps://dx.doi.org/10.1590/sajs.2013/20120040
dc.subject.otherhyena
dc.subject.otherCarnivora
dc.subject.otherLangebaanweg
dc.subject.otherMiocene
dc.subject.otherosteophagy
dc.titleHypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?
dc.typeJournal Article
uct.type.publicationResearch
uct.type.resourceJournal Article
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