Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children

dc.contributor.authorKieck, J R
dc.contributor.authorAndronikou, S
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-18T06:21:31Z
dc.date.available2016-03-18T06:21:31Z
dc.date.issued2004
dc.date.updated2016-01-18T08:13:02Z
dc.description.abstractIt is important to recognise the central nervous system (CNS) imaging appearances of HIV, in particular those of HIV encephalopathy, as this is an AIDS-defining illness. HIV encephalopathy is a common manifestation of HIV, with distinct neuro-imaging features. With the use of images we aim to draw the clinician’s attention to the neuro-imaging modalities best suited to demonstrating these features. Neurological dysfunction in AIDS is common, occurring in as many as 80% of children.1 The spectrum of diseases includes HIV encephalopathy, cerebrovascular disease, PML (progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy), infections and malignancies. Opportunistic CNS infections are extremely rare in paediatric AIDS patients compared with adults,2-4 even in the presence of systemic infections by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, candida and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CMV being the most common paediatric opportunistic infection).3 Toxoplasmosis is almost never seen in young children.3,5,6 Lymphoma (4% of HIV-positive children)6 is more common than toxoplasmosis,3,5,6 but is also not commonly encountered in paediatric practice. The JC virus is considered an opportunistic infection and manifests as PML, which is still rare in children.3,5,7,8 The imaging manifestations of CNS infections, malignancies and vascular diseases fall outside the scope of this article. Up to 76% of asymptomatic HIV-positive children are found to have at least one abnormality on computed tomography (CT).3 Chamberlain et al. 1 found that 40% of HIV-positive children have abnormal CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans by the age of 1 year. The most common findings on imaging are cerebral atrophy1-4,6 and basal ganglia calcifications.1-4,6 White matter changes related to HIV itself are less common,1-3 but occur more frequently than PML.en_ZA
dc.identifier.apacitationKieck, J. R., & Andronikou, S. (2004). Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children. <i>South African Medical Journal</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/17976en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitationKieck, J R, and S Andronikou "Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children." <i>South African Medical Journal</i> (2004) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/17976en_ZA
dc.identifier.citationKieck, J. R., & Andronikou, S. (2004). Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children: clinical images: SAMJ forum. South African Medical Journal, 94(8), p-628.en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn0256-9574en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Kieck, J R AU - Andronikou, S AB - It is important to recognise the central nervous system (CNS) imaging appearances of HIV, in particular those of HIV encephalopathy, as this is an AIDS-defining illness. HIV encephalopathy is a common manifestation of HIV, with distinct neuro-imaging features. With the use of images we aim to draw the clinician’s attention to the neuro-imaging modalities best suited to demonstrating these features. Neurological dysfunction in AIDS is common, occurring in as many as 80% of children.1 The spectrum of diseases includes HIV encephalopathy, cerebrovascular disease, PML (progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy), infections and malignancies. Opportunistic CNS infections are extremely rare in paediatric AIDS patients compared with adults,2-4 even in the presence of systemic infections by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, candida and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CMV being the most common paediatric opportunistic infection).3 Toxoplasmosis is almost never seen in young children.3,5,6 Lymphoma (4% of HIV-positive children)6 is more common than toxoplasmosis,3,5,6 but is also not commonly encountered in paediatric practice. The JC virus is considered an opportunistic infection and manifests as PML, which is still rare in children.3,5,7,8 The imaging manifestations of CNS infections, malignancies and vascular diseases fall outside the scope of this article. Up to 76% of asymptomatic HIV-positive children are found to have at least one abnormality on computed tomography (CT).3 Chamberlain et al. 1 found that 40% of HIV-positive children have abnormal CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans by the age of 1 year. The most common findings on imaging are cerebral atrophy1-4,6 and basal ganglia calcifications.1-4,6 White matter changes related to HIV itself are less common,1-3 but occur more frequently than PML. DA - 2004 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town J1 - South African Medical Journal LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2004 SM - 0256-9574 T1 - Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children TI - Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/17976 ER - en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11427/17976
dc.identifier.vancouvercitationKieck JR, Andronikou S. Usefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in children. South African Medical Journal. 2004; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/17976.en_ZA
dc.languageengen_ZA
dc.publisherHealth and Medical Publishing Groupen_ZA
dc.publisher.departmentDivision of Radiologyen_ZA
dc.publisher.facultyFaculty of Health Sciencesen_ZA
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Cape Town
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial Works License (CC BY-NC 3.0)*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/en_ZA
dc.sourceSouth African Medical Journalen_ZA
dc.source.urihttp://www.samj.org.za
dc.titleUsefulness of neuro-imaging for the diagnosis of HIV encephalopathy in childrenen_ZA
dc.typeJournal Articleen_ZA
uct.type.filetypeText
uct.type.filetypeImage
uct.type.publicationResearchen_ZA
uct.type.resourceArticleen_ZA
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