The agreement between fasting glucose and markers of chronic glycaemic exposure in individuals with and without chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

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Abstract Background To assess whether the agreement between fasting glucose and glycated proteins is affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a community-based sample of 1621 mixed-ancestry South Africans. Methods CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Fasting plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations were measured by enzymatic hexokinase method and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, with fructosamine and glycated albumin measured by immunoturbidimetry and enzymatic method, respectively. Results Of those with CKD (n = 96), 79, 16 and 5% where in stages 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Those with CKD had higher levels of HbA1c (6.2 vs. 5.7%; p < 0.0001), glycated albumin (15.0 vs. 13.0%; p < 0.0001) and fructosamine levels (269.7 vs. 236.4 μmol/l; p < 0.0001), compared to those without CKD. Higher fasting glucose levels were associated with higher HbA1c, glycated albumin and fructosamine, independent of age, gender, and CKD. However, the association with HbA1c and glycated albumin differed by CKD status, at the upper concentrations of the respective markers (interaction term for both: p ≤ 0.095). Conclusion Our results suggest that although HbA1c and glycated albumin perform acceptably under conditions of normoglycaemia, these markers correlate less well with blood glucose levels in people with CKD who are not on dialysis.