Chest Imaging for Pulmonary TB—An Update

The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is challenging. Difficulties in acquiring suitable specimens, pauci-bacillary load, and limitations of current diagnostic methods often make microbiological confirmation difficult. Chest imaging provides an additional diagnostic modality that is frequently used in clinical practice. Chest imaging can also provide insight into treatment response and identify development of disease complications. Despite widespread use, chest radiographs are usually non-specific and have high inter- and intra-observer variability. Other diagnostic imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide additional information to substantiate diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the radiological features of PTB in each modality, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each. We also address newer imaging technologies and potential use.