Browsing by Subject "Sociology"
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- ItemOpen AccessA resurgence of eugenics? The role of race in egg donation(2019) Moyo, Rufaro; Pande, AmritaDespite the Human Genome Project in 2000 discovering that there is no hereditary distinction between races, the naturalized bio-centric conception of race continues to pervade our society (Roberts, 2011). One such area where this happens is during the egg donation process. Egg donation is a part of the growing industry of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs), which clinics employ in the treatment of infertility. Donor agents and clinics often classify their donors using racial categories. This research project sought to discover what role race played in the egg donation process, using racial matching and neo-eugenics as its theoretical frameworks. Ten semi-structured open ended interviews were conducted with nine participants, all of whom work in the field of fertility. The study discovered that the role race plays in the egg donation process is central. Both recipients and donor agents employ racial categories in order to find an egg donor that racially matches the patient, which is the phenomenon of racial-matching. This phenomenon of race-matching is a process of neo-eugenics. Whilst many think of ‘better birth’ at the mention of the term eugenics, this study makes the argument that racial matching mimics eugenic practices of maintaining the myth of racial purity. Donor agents speak of an ‘obviousness’ of the use of racial categories, naturalizing race as biological and seemingly legitimizing hegemonic notions of the family. Yet despite the prevalent use of race, donor agents display discomfort in discussing race and employ emotional narratives that speak to the fairy tale of a supposedly racially homogeneous and heterosexual family being made as a means of deflecting possible problematic views of egg donation. The study acknowledges the socio-political issues that often underpin ARTs, which is carefully concealed by narratives of family creation and the search for wellness. The study concludes by reiterating these arguments and making mention of the need for these power dynamics surrounding race to be dismantled to achieve social justice for all.
- ItemOpen AccessA sociological study of alienation(1974) Bekker, Ann Michaud; Hare, PaulThe aim of this study is to illuminate the problems which arise in seeking to test Marx's theory of alienation empirically, and to assess the contributions of empirical studies of alienation to circumvent some of these problems. Firstly, a framework is constructed to analyse different theories of alienation. Next, Marx's theory is so analysed, as well as a ruler of other empirical studies. This theory and these studies are critically assessed. In conclusion, it is shown that Marx's theory needs elaboration especially with regard to the conception of 11 class consciousness". Empirical studies of this theory, moreover, tend to be either too confined in theoretical scope, on the one hand, or too divergent from the basic Marxist approach, on the other.
- ItemOpen AccessAccess to Tuberculosis testing among adolescents living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: social factors and theoretical considerations(2022) van Staden, Quintin; Toska, Elona; Garba, Muhammed FaisalBackground: Addressing adolescent tuberculosis (TB) is a critical step towards eliminating TB in high burden countries, especially in HIV endemic communities. South Africa has the highest rates of TB/HIV co-infection and the largest population of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) in the world – contributing substantial risk to TB-related morbidity and mortality in this already vulnerable cohort. Previous research on TB has largely overlooked adolescents and ALHIV which has left knowledge – and potential service provision – gaps, but also opportunities for important research. TB among ALHIV is a complex public health challenge, needing to be understood in the context of the unique socio-emotional life stage of adolescence. This dissertation aims to provide insights into the critical first step in the ALHIV TB care cascade: access to TB testing. Through quantitative analysis, I explore the social factors that promote or prevent ALHIV from accessing TB testing in South Africa. Methods: In this longitudinal study, I analysed the Mzantsi Wakho cohort data from n=1046 ALHIV (10-19 years old) from 53 health facilities across the Amathole district of the Eastern Cape. N= 933 (89%) ALHIV – those who participated in the second and third cohort waves – were included in this analysis. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires, assisted by trained and experienced researchers three times between 2014/2015 to 2017/2018. The selection of social factors that influence access to the outcome of TB testing was informed by an extensive scoping literature review. These factors were initially categorised using WHO's social determinants of health framework, which applies the Ecological Model. Thereafter, factors were filtered through the People Centred Model of TB care – to draw focus to the factors pertaining to the individual (both inter- and intrapersonal) rather than factors imbedded in health systems and services. Analysis was conducted in four steps: First descriptive analyses was used to summarise sociodemographic characteristics, relevant TB clinical data and HIV related factors at each interview (T2 and T3). Secondly, cross tabulation and frequencies of factors were done, comparing ALHIV who tested for TB to those that did not. Thirdly, univariate analysis was performed to identify factors with statistically significant associations with having a TB test or not. Lastly, multivariate regression models of these significant factors were run, both for each time point and over time (across both time points) using a stepwise approach by Hosmer-Lemeshow. The “why” or “how” these specific factors affected the probability of TB testing were then explored through the application of sociological theories and concepts, including the life course approach, social action theory and habitus. Findings: Consistently experiencing the following factors over time were linked to greater odds of TB testing: being 15 years and older (OR 1.43, CI 1.06-1.92, p 0.019), female ALHIV (OR 1.34, CI 1.02-1.75, p 0.033), in a relationship at both time points (OR 1.79, CI 1.23-2.62, p 0.002) and having had a viral load test each year (OR 1.50, CI 1.11-2.02, p 0.008). Having TB symptoms at either wave 2 or 3 was associated with TB testing (OR 1.46, CI 1.08-1.96, p 0.013). At Wave 2, no sim card phone (OR 0.64, CI 0.47-0.85, p 0.002) and having to pay R10 or more to get to the clinic (OR 0.68, CI 0.51-0.92, p 0.011) were associated with lower odds of TB testing, while viral load testing in the past year (OR 1.74, CI 1.26-2.40, p 0.001), living in a rural setting (0R 1.54, CI 1.10-2.16, p 0.012), being 15 years and older (OR 1.60, CI 1.19- 2.15, p 0.002) and reporting any TB symptoms (OR 1.72, CI 1.29-2.30, p< 0.001) were associated with higher odds of TB testing. At Wave 3, when most of the participants were in late adolescence being 15 years and older (OR 1.61, CI 1.19-2.19, p 0.002), living in informal housing (OR 1.58, CI 1.07-2.37, p 0.023), being in a relationship (OR 1.58, CI 1.15-2.18, p.005), experienced community violence (OR 1.43, CI 1.05-1.96, p 0.023), food security (OR 1.53, CI 1.11-2.11, p 0.010) and experienced any TB symptoms (OR 1.65, CI 1.25-2.20, p 0.001) had higher odds of reporting TB testing. Discussion and Conclusion: In this Eastern Cape cohort of ALHIV, factors linked to where ALHIV live (living rurally, cost to get the clinic more than R10, living in informal housing and having experienced community violence) as a reflection of the deep structural issues that shape health symptoms and healthcare access, who they are (age, sex) and their close emotional and nutritional support (being in a relationship, food security) have shown to strongly influence TB testing. Some of these factors are directly linked to increasing risk of TB exposure or vulnerability to TB: rural residence, informal housing and unsafe communities. To delve into why these factors shaped TB testing in ALHIV, sociological theories and concepts were applied to these findings. This dissertation took a holistic approach to bridge a critical knowledge gap in ALHIV's entry into TB care, extending our biomedical understanding with applied sociological frameworks. The work of this dissertation could enhance the current HIV services package offered to ALHIV by creating an awareness and identifying adolescents that may not be reached by current TB testing services. With this insight, TB services in South Africa, and perhaps broader afield, can introduce targeted interventions and social protection measures tailored to address adolescent TB testing, particularly in terms of integrating TB testing into HIV services.
- ItemOpen AccessAdoption : salient experiences of a sample of adult adoptees(1987) Boult, Brenda Ernestine; Jubber, KenThis investigation into adoption began in January 1986 in the Republic of South Africa. The aim was to understand adoption from the subjective viewpoint of adults who were adopted as infants or children. It was based on the working hypothesis that although adoption has universal qualities, there would also be regional, cultural and time-related differences affecting both the practice and experience of adoption. Appeals were made for respondents through three popular magazines, private welfare organisations, the Registrar of Adoption and by means of "snowball sampling". Questionnaires were subsequently posted country-wide between April and October 1986. The questionnaire contained 209 open- and closed-ended questions covering the period from adoption placement to adulthood. An eighty-eight percent response rate was obtained. The material was analysed with emphasis on the qualitative interpretation of the content of the data in the open-ended responses. The sample comprised eighty-two adult adoptees between the ages of eighteen and seventy, of whom seventy-one percent were female, twenty-nine percent male, 58,5 percent Afrikaans speaking and 41,5 percent English- speaking. Cultural differences were found in the responses of the two language groups. Variables that have been considered relevant or insufficiently explored in the literature on adoption were examined. These were: age of placement; attachment in the adoptive home; manner and timing of revelation of adoptive status and adoptee reactions to this; adoptee thoughts and fears concerning birth parents, the school experience; identity problems in adolescence and adulthood manifested as insecurity or behaviour problems; the adoptee's need to know more about his or her origins and the concomitant consequences. Notable findings were: the paucity of information given to these adoptees about their origins; thoughts and fears about birth parents that occurred as early as the pre-school period; childhood fears arising from the adoptive status; sensitivity about being adopted; peer group cruelty in pre-puberty and a seventeen percent parasuicide incidence among the members of this sample. Another finding related to the adult adoptee's need for a bio-genealogical history, especially in view of the high risk of certain genetic disorders, particularly among the Afrikaner population. The majority of the adoptees in this sample entertained the possibility of meeting birth parents one day; for many this began in pre-puberty. This was contingent on the quality of the relationship with their adoptive parents in only a minority of cases. Few adoptees could share their thoughts about adoption and birth parents with their adoptive parents. Adoptees who were 'searching' or who had 'found' birth parents were motivated more by a need to know who they were and why they had been given up for adoption, than by a need to replace the 'lost parent'. Where the relationship with the adoptive parents was warm and satisfying, the finding of birth parent(s) did not affect the adoptive relationship deleteriously. These findings point to a need for more research on adoption following changes in South African adoption laws allowing adult adoptees access to court records of their adoption. Adoptees and their parents need informed assistance from those who counsel them.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the independent trade unions in South Africa in the 1970s(1986) Maree, Johannes Gerhardus Bester; Wilson, FrancisThe thesis is an historical and sociological study of the independent trade unions in South Africa in the 1970s. Several research methods were used: participant and non-participant observation, primary and secondary source, and open-ended interviews. In addition, shown to the unions for correction of clarification of issues. material, structured earlier drafts were factual errors and the findings of the thesis are as follows: historically, the independent unions went through two stages in the 1970s. During the first stage they struggled for survival against capital and the state, which opposed their very existence. At the end of 1976 their future hung in the balance because of political turmoil, economic recession, and state repression. But they survived and in the second stage they fought to gain formal recognition at a limited number of companies. Sociologically, the thesis focusses on two major themes: the efforts of the independent unions to be democratic organisations and their strategies to acquire power. A central finding is that the independent unions strove to build up their strength by organising democratically at the workplace. Certain strategies in organising and tactics in industrial disputes were more successful than others in helping the unions build up their strength. The unions went through a democratisation process that entailed three phases: the creation of democratic structures in the unions, developing workers' capacities to take control of the structures, and the emergence of representative and accountable worker leadership. While this process had not been completed by the end of the period under consideration, the strong influence initially exercised by intellectual leaders was reduced considerably. The empirical findings of the thesis are used to evaluate the appropriateness of relevant sociological theories of trade unions and related issues. They are frequently found to be inappropriate , being based on conditions very different from those that faced the independent unions. Finally , it is concluded that the democratic form of organisation adopted by the independent unions in the 1970s had a definite political significance which started emerging in the 1980s.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of study-abroad students: how the 'self' articulates experiences and encounters in different cultural settings(2016) Chingore, Tatenda Millicent Nichole; Sitas, AriTwenty-first century globalisation has brought with it, distinction among students through the Internationalisation of Higher Education (IHE). The effects of globalization and the IHE has been categorised as "preparing students for the globalizing world, suggesting new pedagogies and institutional settings that nurture 'global consciousness'" (Mansilla & Gardner, 2007: 56.) With the increase in mobility and hyper-connectivity, an education has become more than what is taught within the confines of a classroom or university. Studying abroad has become a significant component within the academic arena that allows students the privilege and opportunity to develop intercultural competence through first-hand experience This study seeks to explore the articulation of experiences and encounters from the perspective of the study abroad student exposed to cultural settings different from their own. This dissertation will place particular emphasis on the articulation of the responses and approaches taken by individuals of their respective encounters and experiences, using the Circuit of Culture as a link drawing together the themes (Re)Construction of Self Identity; 'Fitting In' and Adaptation; Developing Intercultural Competence and Society as we now know it, to give a holistic, interpretive understanding into the meanings and outcomes produced by the relationship between the constructions and perceived ideologies of both the study abroad student and the hosts collective. The study is amalgamation of responses from personal narrations given by eight participants, as well as a discussion with four individuals in a focus group from different countries. They reveal the importance of the self, from both the personal and social viewpoint to be able to comprehend the actions and reactions taken to construct, adapt, assimilate and learn from the experience. Discoveries uncover difference as a component that exists between the self and the other in a number of ways through how they classify and identify each other. As a result, slight but significant changes in perceptions can be noted.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the role of firearms control laws in South African society(1973) Zazeraj, Victor John; Van Zyl Slabbert, FrederikThis study had as its purpose an attempt to establish on empirical grounds the role firearms control laws play in South African society. A holist methodological position was adopted from among the alternatives available for scientific social research, and the structural-functional theoretical framework of the main line tradition was employed for the purposes of the analysis. Accordingly, legislation was defined as serving a primarily integrative function in society, (integration being functionally one of four system imperatives), by translating prevailing values and norms into a stable, attributive code. A discussion of general historical and contemporary perspectives related to purpose(s), role, and efficacy of restrictive firearms legislation preceded a survey of the development of gun controls in the Republic of South Africa. Current legislative provisions in this context were then dealt with in some detail. Research into the official documentary reports of the S.A. Department of Statistics (i.e., the Report on Deaths, and Statistics of Offences), and the Annual Report of the Commissioner of the South African Pol ice, covering a period of years, was carried out and although some of the required statistical information was inadequate, or entirely non-existent, it was finally concluded on the basis of available evidence that such legislation is enacted in this society on the assumption that it serves the purposes of crime reduction and civil peace. This assumption was shown to be empirically unsupported, and an alternative approach was called for in terms of which legislators should place greater positive emphasis on the individual right to keep and bear arms. It was concluded that such a shift of emphasis would more effectively promote the defined role of legislation in South African society.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the socio-political role of the Roman Catholic Church in contemporary South Africa(1991) Law, Lois; Goldberg, MelvinThis study attempts an analysis of the form and content of the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church in South Africa to the policy and practice of apartheid during the period 1948-1989. It is argued that the divisions, tensions and contradictions of the Catholic Church reflect the socially divided character of the broader society. It is suggested that some of the policies, teachings and social practice of the South African Catholic Church serve to reproduce and reinforce the existing societal relations of domination, thus contributing to the hegemony of the dominant social group, while others undermine the same and point toward a transformation of social relations in a democratic society. In some instances the Church has contributed to the nascent hegemony of the dominated group. Literature focusing on the Catholic Church during times of social upheaval is reviewed. Recent analyses of the role of the Christian Churches in apartheid South Africa are considered. Various approaches to the Sociology of Religion are discussed and the relevance of a contextual approach to the analysis of the Church is argued. Gramsci's concept of hegemony as a tool of political analysis is discussed. A brief .historical overview of the Catholic Church in South Africa is given. It is contended that the Catholic Church in South Africa must be understood in terms of its colonial, missionary and racist history. An ecclesiological overview of the Roman Catholic Church in terms of its - history, traditions, organization, authority structures, governing procedures and beliefs is sketched. The ·social Teaching' of the Catholic Church during the twentieth century is outlined. The importance of the Second Vatican Council, the emergence of the Theology of Liberation and the increasing centrality of social justice in Church teachings is discussed. The implications of these developments for the pastoral practice of the Church is emphasized. The response of the Catholic Church to the introduction and implementation of 'separate development' is considered. Content analysis is used as a research method. The study therefore falls within the realm of hermeneutic or interpretative sociology. The gradual transition from an attitude of paternalism to committed involvement in the anti-apartheid struggle is traced. The Catholic Church's response to the Bantu Education Act, which was the primary focus of its opposition to apartheid in the 1950's, is evaluated. The challenge of the Black Consciousness movement is acknowledged. It is argued that the realities of apartheid society have had a profound impact on the Church, severely compromising its unity. The related processes of reform, repression and resistance are examined. It emerges that while the Church's championship of human rights has been unequivocal, its support for some of the strategies employed in the struggle against apartheid has been more tentative. It is argued that the Catholic Church's participation in the anti-apartheid struggle has facilitated a growth in ecumenism and increased contact with secular organizations. The Catholic Church has become part of a broad anti- apartheid alliance. It is suggested that while there have been important changes in the Church's self-understanding and perception of its role in, and pastoral mission to, society, these changes have been uneven and ambiguous. They have not been reflected throughout the Church and have underlined the divisions within the Church. There has been considerable reluctance on the part of many white Catholics to endorse the anti-apartheid stance of the hierarchy. However, the S.A.C.B.C.'s commitment to social justice is in tune with modern Catholic social teaching. Finally, it is argued that the Catholic Church has challenged white domination and undermined the hegemony of apartheid in South African society.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing the people's navy : gender transformation and the South African Navy(2007) Taylor, Simon; Seegers, AnnetteThe South African Navy is required to implement the principle of gender equality as part of its transformation. This forms part of a broader project of transformation in South Africa, the Navy is one aspect of this. The dissertation is located in the field of Civil-Military Relations. The assessment of transformation is done by first, understanding the complex term transformation and its how it has been applied to the military. Second, the policies requiring transformation in the Department of Defence and the military are examined drawing on the Constitution, the White Paper on Defence, the Defence Review Process and numerous Parliamentary resources, including interviews with relevant Members of Parliament. To assess the Navy, three Naval Orders are examined (Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action, Social Responsibility, and Gender Transformation), which together constitute the Navy's policies regarding Gender Transformation. The assessment is furthered by the examination of the numbers of women serving in the Navy and the rank distribution. These statistics are then compared with: similar data from 1999; the relative situation to men in the Navy; the racial profile of the Navy; the different service arms; and to other navies. In comparison to the other service arms and international standards, the Navy's transformation has progressed well.
- ItemOpen AccessThe assessment of early parenting orientation(1999) Evans, Janet; Lea, Susan; Le Grange, DanielThis study focuses on parenting styles as adopted by men and women during pregnancy and early parenthood. Parenting style is examined following the categories outlined by Raphael-Left's model (1983, 1985b, 1991 ). The sample consisted of 57 women and 39 men. Mailed, self administered questionnaires were used with all participants. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires devised by Raphael-Left (1983, 1985b, 1991) are examined. The study also assesses the stability of these orientations from the beginning of pregnancy into early parenthood. The results of the psychometric evaluation reveal that the questionnaires are not internally consistent. Further, a model consisting of a continuum of parenting style is not supported. The stability of parental orientation over time was not established, parenting style appears to change particularly after childbirth.
- ItemOpen AccessAt the crossroads of the identity (re)construction process: an analysis of 'fateful moments' in the lives of Coloured students within an equity development programme at UCT(2015) Nomdo, Gideon John; Graaff, JohannSociology has made valuable contributions in the area of identity theory. Recent research into the identity transformation process has seen much emphasis being placed on developing specific conceptual tools to unpack the variable nature of these transformations. These conceptual tools have been extremely efficient. Their focus, however, has tended to be either too macro-social or micro-social at times. As a result, not enough attention has been given to developing existing conceptual tools that can address individual identity transformations at both the macro and micro levels. This study attempts to address this need. What is illustrated here is the extent to which the application of a particular conceptual tool can be enriched by selectively drawing on other identity concepts so as to offer a fuller and more context-laden understanding of the identity transformation process. In this study I use Anthony Giddens' (1991) notion of 'fateful moments' as an anchor concept. Giddens uses this concept to unpack the existential basis of identity transformations. I draw on additional concepts from cognitive, lifespan and phenomenological approaches to identity and show how these can be used conjunctively to enhance the efficiency of the 'fateful moment' concept for exploring the existential dimension of identity transformations. I demonstrate the use of this 'fateful moment' concept by employing it to examine the identity transformations undergone by three Coloured students participating in an equity development programme at the University of Cape Town (a historically White institution). I show how their location within an equity development programme allows them to engage in a particular type of reflexivity, through which they strive to create meaningful continuity in their lives. My focus was to gain insight into these students' significant relationships with others and to show how these relationships impacted on the ways in which they experienced their sense of location in the world. As a result, the issue of 'self' and the desire on the part of the research participants to locate an 'authentic self' became an important driver in the research process. What is illustrated, therefore, is how an existential focus is able to offer new perspectives on Coloured identity, especially in relation to its inclusion under the racial category of 'Black' in post-apartheid SA. This thesis adopts a qualitative case study approach. The experiences of three Coloured UCT students are presented as three individual case studies. I examine their home, school and university contexts to develop particular biographical narratives for each of them, so as to better locate the circumstances under which their 'fateful moments' occur and the impact thereof on their sense of self. An in-depth qualitative analysis of each of these students' identity transformation experiences was conducted, which revealed new ways in which to think about, use and define the 'fateful moment' concept. My data included reflective essays, semi-structured interviews and observational field notes. I used my initial analysis of the reflective essays and observation notes as a means to develop some of the more open-ended interview questions. The interviews therefore served as a means of triangulating the data. I drew on a combination of content analysis and constructivist grounded theory for analysing the data. I established that these students' continued classification as Coloured in their everyday social interactions, impacted negatively on their perceptions of self. The inclusion of Coloured in the overarching descriptive category of Black, surfaced as a particular source of contention, resentment and guilt for the Coloured students represented here. These students were all searching for a way of expressing an authentic sense of self that was unencumbered by the restrictive and limited possibilities that was bound up in traditional constructions of Coloured identity in SA. What becomes apparent is that the 'fateful moment' concept, when used in conjunction with other selected theoretical perspectives, offers a much more nuanced understanding of the identity transformation process. As such, the strategic use of 'fateful moments' as illustrated in its application to Coloured identity in this thesis, allows us to get a much better understanding of how race feels, thereby adding value to the way in which sociological theory constructs meaning in the world. The conceptual framework for unpacking identity transformation developed here, makes available a particular sociological lens for assessing and measuring the transformational impact of equity development programmes at institutions of higher education. It also allows a more critical stance to be developed towards the tendency to homogenise the Black South African student experience. Doing so allows institutions the space to reflect more deeply on how to strategise around issues of social justice, equity and transformation.
- ItemOpen AccessThe biometric imaginary: standardization and objectivity in the post-apartheid welfare state(2013) Donovan, Kevin P.Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references.
- ItemOpen AccessBlackness in a predominantly white academe : a case of the University of Cape Town's Faculty of Health Sciences(2011) Serote, Abraham Chupe; Cooper, David M; London, LeslieThis study examined the lived experience of black registrars (medical residents) in a predominantly white academic medical milieu using the case of the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, South Africa. It foregrounded this experience by demonstrating how it is circumscribed by notions of race (and racism). Given the centrality of race and thus, whiteness, a select few members of the white academic staff were included as a 'control' group. The study employed Critical Race Theory (CRT) as its overarching theoretical lens. Research confirmed CRT theoretical underpinnings that life experience in race-centred societies is, largely, circumscribed by race (and racism), it also contended that there existed no singular black experience; hence the emergence of the three narratives of black registrar experience at UCT FHS.
- ItemOpen AccessBodies over Borders and Borders over Bodies: the 'Gender Refugee' and the imagined South Africa(2016) Camminga, Bianca; Posel, Deborah; Matebeni, Zethu; Levine, SusanThis thesis tracks the conceptual journeying of the term 'transgender' from the Global North - where it originated - along with the physical embodied journeying of transgender asylum seekers from countries within Africa to South Africa, and considers the interrelationships between the two. With regards to the term 'transgender', it is the contention of this thesis that it transforms as it travels, taking on meaning in relation to bodies, national homes, institutional frameworks and imaginaries. More specifically, that it has materialised in South Africa - first as a discourse and following this as a politics - due to a combination of social, political and cultural conditions peculiar to the country. In direct correlation to this movement, this thesis argues that in recent years South Africa has seen the emergence of what can be usefully termed 'gender refugees' - people who can make claims to refugee status, fleeing their countries of origin based on the persecution of their gender identity. This study centers on the experiences and narratives of these gender refugees, gathered through a series of life story interviews, highlighting the ways in which their departures, border crossings, arrivals and perceptions of South Africa have been both enabled and constrained by the contested meanings and politics of this emergence of transgender, particularly in relation to the possibilities of the South African Constitution. Through such narratives, this thesis explores the radical constitutional-legal possibilities for transgender in South Africa, the dissonances between the possibilities of constitutional law - in relation to the distinction made between sex and gender - and the pervasive politics/logic of binary 'sex/gender' within South African society. In doing so, this thesis enriches the emergent field of Transgender Studies, and challenges some of the current dominant theoretical and political perceptions of transgender, by offering complex narratives regarding sex, gender, sexuality and notions of home in relation to particular geo-politically situated bodies. This thesis speaks to contemporary international concerns and debates regarding migration and asylum, identity politics, the control of borders, human rights and protections, documentation and the ongoing bureaucratisation of sex/gender.
- ItemOpen AccessBonded: Legacies of Captivity and Fugitivity from Enslavement to Incarceration in the Cape(2022) Perez, Javier Ernesto; Sitas, Ari; Pande, AmritaThe contemporary hyper-incarceration of ‘Coloured' South Africans is re-situated within the broader historical dialectics of racialisation and creolisation, traversing from colonial slavery to the modern prison regime. This study uses theorisations of marronage, fugitivity, and hauntology to posit novel understandings of the links between runaway slaves (‘droster1 gangs') and the contemporary ‘Coloured' criminal figure. This dissertation approaches the latter as engaged in traditions of opacity-making, initiated by the former as a production of complex structures of density and unknowability against the epistemic violence of the colonial gaze that seeks to ‘discover', categorise and control. As such, this study proposes to understand collectives of fugitives beyond the lexicons of criminality, on the one extreme, and resistance, on the other. Applying emerging qualitative and arts-based methods, it further offers an innovative methodological framework to strategically listen for the poetics and sonicity of fugitive narratives, highlighting the incondensable movements therein of dense temporalities, opacities, and personal and collective narration. Specifically, through a poetry- and performance-based workshop series, this study collaborates with formerly-incarcerated men to engage with the Cape's history of slavery and marronage, exploring the meanings and relevance of this history through creative writings, group discussions, and performance.
- ItemOpen AccessCan coloured men be good fathers and will society let them? An intergenerational exploration of coloured men in Cape Town and their caring practices(2014) Hartley, Tauriq; Moore, EIt is unclear, in the South African context, how fatherhood has changed among the different historical generations, and how practices change and are transmitted from fathers to sons, particularly within Coloured families. Statistics concerning the number of Coloured men who are ‘present’ fathers suggest an overwhelming absence: up to 48% of families are without a father. The historical and social perceptions of Coloured men have often painted them as violent, crude and socially absent in the lives of their children. By investigating fatherhood, using an intergenerational case study method, at the individual, family and community levels, this project seeks to provide a holistic and complex account of the ways fatherhood operates in contemporary social life; particularly looking at those men who are present and active in the lives of their children. The study seeks ways to describe and understand the nature of fatherhood for this group of men, examining the intersections of fatherhood, masculinity, and racial identity. The research will uncover what men themselves think and feel about fatherhood and how they enact their roles as fathers and caregivers.
- ItemOpen AccessCan Medicare afford to pay for oral chemotherapy drugs? : an evaluation of the problem and introduction of a model to estimate cost(2003) Roberts, Thomas GeraldRecently, effective oral cancer drugs are gaining prominence. This trend toward oral chemotherapy has important economic implications: the Medicare system of the United States pays for all intravenous (IV) chemotherapy, but it covers only those oral drugs that have an equivalent IV formulation approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The majority of oral cancer drugs in the cancer pipeline do not have such an IV equivalent. There are two proposals before the United States Congress to expand the Medicare program to cover all oral cancer drugs. Gefitinib (Iressa; AstraZeneca) is one of the most interesting of the cohort of novel, targeted oral cancer drugs. Already approved in Japan, it is currently under review by the U.S. FDA. This drug has relatively modest efficacy and few side effects; but it is likely to be expensive. Because the sponsor is seeking approval for the treatment of lung cancer, with a large annual incidence, the economic implications of an FDA approval for gefitinib have raised considerable concern.
- ItemOpen AccessChanging migrant spaces and livelihoods: Hostels as community residential units, Kwa-Mashu KwaZulu-Natal South Africa(2012) Xulu, NomkhosiThis study focuses on the significance of the changes that are currently taking place at the KwaMashu hostel, the conversion of the hostel system and the transformation of migrant spaces and livelihoods. I trace the stories of hostel dwellers and the processes that take place when former single sex workers' hostels of the apartheid era are turned into Community Residential Units (CRUs). CRUs are family housing that has been designed by the government to replace workers' hostels. This thesis examines the sociology of the everyday life struggles of the migrants who live in CRUs. The "units" and the people who reside in them constitute the primary unit of analysis. Their families and social networks constitute the secondary unit of analysis. The CRUs are a significant site for the exploration of the redefinition of rural-urban connections in our society; connections which originate from the stubborn survival of migrancy as a key form of livelihoods procurement among large numbers of African working-class people.
- ItemOpen AccessClass and ethnicity : the politics and ideologies of the Greek community in South Africa, circa 1890-1924(1982) Mantzaris, Evangelos A; Alexander, NevilleThe present thesis demonstrates the significance of class and ethnicity as determinants of the political attitudes and ideologies of the Greek community in South Africa. The periodisation of the history of the Greek community in south Africa undertaken in this thesis supports five major hypotheses which are tested, i.e. that ethnic and national solidarity are socially created - phenomena, class factors play an important role in the life of the immigrants and that absence of intra-ethnic conflict stems from the non-existence of antagonistic social relations amongst different social strata of the same ethnic group. It also supports the .hypotheses that the diffusion of ideologies and politics predominating in the country of origin of the immigrants plays a significant part in their life process and that the existence of political and social forces within the host country contribute to the shaping of individuals' and groups' political responses and attitudes.
- ItemOpen AccessCo-ordination of enterprise skill formation: a sociological and historical narrative of professional, market and state initiatives in South Africa(2018) Lundall, Paul Arnold; Maree, JohannThis thesis analyses the sociological and historical genesis of enterprise skill formation in South Africa and its effective coordination. South Africa’s late nineteenth century development as an emerging economy contributed to the state often taking the lead and being at the forefront of efforts to ensure coordination in enterprise skill formation. But gradually, concerns shaped by issues related to labour supply motivated leaders in firms and enterprises to forge their own imprint on the coordination of enterprise skill formation. The thesis also shows how these concerns with the coordination of enterprise skill formation involved intellectuals and professionals who attempted to intervene on these matters. The thesis proceeds to elaborate the unique institutional architecture which was constructed at various junctures in the history of South Africa’s human resource and skill formation journey. Furthermore the thesis gives an insight into the coordination of enterprise skill formation which occurred in the period of apartheid induced reforms. The evidence however shows that even when regimes change and new political orders are established, it does not end the necessity for continuity in the coordination of enterprise skill formation. As is to be expected, the institutional, regulatory and instrumental content of the coordination of enterprise skill formation is more complex in the contemporary period (circa. 2017) than it was in the 1920s and 1930s. However, the goal striven toward then was for a more streamlined process which could contribute to a change and improvement in the existing practice of enterprise skill formation. Evidence shows that this has been ongoing for over a century. The thesis gives an intricate and detailed insight into the process of building a new coordinated skills development system that was intended to ensure the coordination of enterprise skill formation under a democratic post-apartheid political dispensation. In this period a levy-grant system underwritten by a national skills levy has been a central instrument of direct coordination into enterprise skill formation. The analysis that is provided traces the iterative steps that were treaded by policy makers and policy thinkers from at least the early 1920s as they confronted what may have appeared as an elusive enterprise skill formation process. This analysis is done with a great deal more depth for the period since the early 1990s.