Browsing by Subject "Hemoglobin"
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- ItemOpen AccessAnemia in type 2 diabetic patients and correlation with kidney function in a tertiary care sub-Saharan African hospital: a cross-sectional study(2016) Feteh, Vitalis F; Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Kengne, André Pascal; Nebongo, Daniel N; Ngowe-Ngowe, MarcelinBackgroundAnemia is common in diabetic patients and increases morbidity and mortality, but its burden has been less well characterized in sub-Saharan Africans. We determined the prevalence of anemia and investigated the related factors, with a particular focus on the role of declining renal function, in type 2 diabetic patients attending a tertiary health care institution in Cameroon.MethodsHemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured in a consecutive sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, who reported for annual review at the outpatient section of the Douala General Hospital in 2013. Patients were classified as anemic according to the World Health Organisation criteria (Hb < 12g/dl for females and Hb < 13g/dl for males). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group formula. Determinants of Hb concentration and anemia were investigated using multivariable logistic regressions.ResultsA total of 636 patients were examined including 263 (prevalence rate 41.4%) who had anemia. The prevalence of anemia increased significantly with deteriorating kidney function, although up to 31.9% of patients with normal kidney function had anemia. Compared with their non-anemic counterparts, anemic diabetic patients were older, had longer duration of diabetes, lower eGFR, higher prevalence of proteinuria and diabetic retinopathy (all p < 0.05). In multivariable logistic regressions, eGFR (p = 0.001) and presence of retinopathy (p = 0.023) were the independent determinants of prevalent anemia.ConclusionsThe prevalence of anemia is high in type 2 diabetic patients attending referral institutions in Cameroon, including among those without chronic kidney disease. Routine screening for anemia in all diabetic patients may aid early identification and correction as appropriate.
- ItemOpen AccessAssociation of variants at BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB with hemoglobin F and hospitalization rates among sickle cell patients in Cameroon(Public Library of Science, 2014) Wonkam, Ambroise; Bitoungui, Valentina J Ngo; Vorster, Anna A; Ramesar, Raj; Cooper, Richard S; Tayo, Bamidele; Lettre, Guillaume; Ngogang, JeanneBACKGROUND: Genetic variation at loci influencing adult levels of HbF have been shown to modify the clinical course of sickle cell disease (SCD). Data on this important aspect of SCD have not yet been reported from West Africa. We investigated the relationship between HbF levels and the relevant genetic loci in 610 patients with SCD (98% HbSS homozygotes) from Cameroon, and compared the results to a well-characterized African-American cohort. Methods and FINDINGS: Socio-demographic and clinical features were collected and medical records reviewed. Only patients >5 years old, who had not received a blood transfusion or treatment with hydroxyurea were included. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and a full blood count were conducted upon arrival at the hospital. RFLP-PCR was used to describe the HBB gene haplotypes. SNaPshot PCR, Capillary electrophoresis and cycle sequencing were used for the genotyping of 10 selected SNPs. Genetic analysis was performed with PLINK software and statistical models in the statistical package R. Allele frequencies of relevant variants at BCL11A were similar to those detected in African Americans; although the relationships with Hb F were significant (p <.001), they explained substantially less of the variance in HbF than was observed among African Americans (∼ 2% vs 10%). SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region ( HMIP ) likewise had a significant impact on HbF, however, we did not find an association between HbF and the variations in HBB cluster and OR51B5/6 locus on chromosome 11p, due in part to the virtual absence of the Senegal and Indian Arab haplotypes. We also found evidence that selected SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region ( HMIP ) and BCL11A affect both other hematological indices and rates of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This study has confirmed the associations of SNPs in BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB and fetal haemoglobin in Cameroonian SCA patients; hematological indices and hospitalization rates were also associated with specific allelic variants.