Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

 

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dc.contributor.advisor Meintjes, Ernesta M en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Bromley, Katie Rachael en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2014-09-30T13:41:13Z
dc.date.available 2014-09-30T13:41:13Z
dc.date.issued 2009 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Bromley, K. 2009. Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. University of Cape Town. en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/7796
dc.description.abstract Background. As part of a large ongoing research programme concerned with the teratogenic effects prenatal alcohol exposure has on the developing brain, this study investigated whether developmental reading difficulties are present in school-going children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Whereas the diagnostic facial anomalies associated with FASD are well documented, cognitive deficits remain largely unexplored. Some neuropsychological reviews include deficits in reading as part of the FASD cognitive profile; however, the extant empirical research investigating reading abilities in children with FASD is limited. Therefore, the specific objectives of the current study were to explore the prevalence and characteristics of developmental reading skill deficits in a sample of children with FASD. Methods. Participants were 46 children (9-13 years) who had previously been diagnosed as either prenatally exposed or non-exposed. Of the 32 exposed children, 7 met the criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 3 met the criteria for partial FAS (pFAS) and 22 did not meet the criteria for diagnosis of FAS/pFAS but were still heavily exposed (and were thus characterized as âother heavily exposedâ, or OHE). All participants were administered the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA; a measure of reading speed, accuracy, and comprehension) and the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB; a measure of phonological awareness, processing speed and fluency). Independent samples t-tests and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were performed to determine if there were statistically significant between-group differences in a two-group (exposed versus non-exposed) or three-group (FAS/pFAS versus OHE versus control) comparison. Multiple regression-based analyses were performed to determine if a relationship existed between a continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure and the outcome measures. Within each of these analyses an estimate of IQ was used to determine if the effects seen were present even with that covariate taken into account. Results. None of the two- or three-group analyses showed any statistical significance on the PhAB or NARA outcome variables. Participants in the FAS/pFAS and OHE groups performed significantly differently on the PhAB non-phonological fluency performance measure; this between-group difference was not in the predicted direction, however, and probably resulted from artifactual factors. Results from the multiple regression-based analyses showed that associations between the predictor variable (level of prenatal alcohol exposure) and two outcome variables (phonological production speed and reading rate abilities) approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. 7 Conclusion. Overall, the data suggest that impairments in phonological awareness, phonological processing speed, verbal fluency, and developmental reading difficulties are not characteristic of the cognitive profile of children with FASD. These findings are not conclusive, however, due to several limitations in the current study. These limitations are discussed and provide interesting insight into the process of assessing phonological abilities and reading skills in this population. Further research, using a broader range of assessment tools and a larger sample size, is necessary in order to provide a more detailed and definitive analysis of these abilities. Nonetheless, the current study shows that the evaluation of reading and phonological disorders in FASD is an important and worthwhile endeavour. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.subject.other History en_ZA
dc.title Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders en_ZA
dc.type Master Thesis
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Thesis en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Humanities en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Psychology en_ZA
dc.type.qualificationlevel Masters
dc.type.qualificationname MA en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Bromley, K. R. (2009). <i>Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders</i>. (Thesis). University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11427/7796 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Bromley, Katie Rachael. <i>"Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders."</i> Thesis., University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/7796 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Bromley KR. Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. [Thesis]. University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology, 2009 [cited yyyy month dd]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/7796 en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Thesis / Dissertation AU - Bromley, Katie Rachael AB - Background. As part of a large ongoing research programme concerned with the teratogenic effects prenatal alcohol exposure has on the developing brain, this study investigated whether developmental reading difficulties are present in school-going children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Whereas the diagnostic facial anomalies associated with FASD are well documented, cognitive deficits remain largely unexplored. Some neuropsychological reviews include deficits in reading as part of the FASD cognitive profile; however, the extant empirical research investigating reading abilities in children with FASD is limited. Therefore, the specific objectives of the current study were to explore the prevalence and characteristics of developmental reading skill deficits in a sample of children with FASD. Methods. Participants were 46 children (9-13 years) who had previously been diagnosed as either prenatally exposed or non-exposed. Of the 32 exposed children, 7 met the criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 3 met the criteria for partial FAS (pFAS) and 22 did not meet the criteria for diagnosis of FAS/pFAS but were still heavily exposed (and were thus characterized as &amp;amp;amp;acirc;other heavily exposed&amp;amp;amp;acirc;, or OHE). All participants were administered the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA; a measure of reading speed, accuracy, and comprehension) and the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB; a measure of phonological awareness, processing speed and fluency). Independent samples t-tests and one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were performed to determine if there were statistically significant between-group differences in a two-group (exposed versus non-exposed) or three-group (FAS/pFAS versus OHE versus control) comparison. Multiple regression-based analyses were performed to determine if a relationship existed between a continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure and the outcome measures. Within each of these analyses an estimate of IQ was used to determine if the effects seen were present even with that covariate taken into account. Results. None of the two- or three-group analyses showed any statistical significance on the PhAB or NARA outcome variables. Participants in the FAS/pFAS and OHE groups performed significantly differently on the PhAB non-phonological fluency performance measure; this between-group difference was not in the predicted direction, however, and probably resulted from artifactual factors. Results from the multiple regression-based analyses showed that associations between the predictor variable (level of prenatal alcohol exposure) and two outcome variables (phonological production speed and reading rate abilities) approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. 7 Conclusion. Overall, the data suggest that impairments in phonological awareness, phonological processing speed, verbal fluency, and developmental reading difficulties are not characteristic of the cognitive profile of children with FASD. These findings are not conclusive, however, due to several limitations in the current study. These limitations are discussed and provide interesting insight into the process of assessing phonological abilities and reading skills in this population. Further research, using a broader range of assessment tools and a larger sample size, is necessary in order to provide a more detailed and definitive analysis of these abilities. Nonetheless, the current study shows that the evaluation of reading and phonological disorders in FASD is an important and worthwhile endeavour. DA - 2009 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2009 T1 - Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders TI - Exploring the prevalence of developmental reading difficulties in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/7796 ER - en_ZA


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