Missed Opportunities for Vaccination and Associated Factors among Children Attending Primary Health Care Facilities in Cape Town, South Africa: A Pre-Intervention Multilevel Analysis

Despite the substantial efforts at ensuring universal access to routine immunisation services among children in South Africa, major gaps in immunisation coverage remain. This study assessed the magnitude of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) and associated factors among children aged 0–23 months attending primary health care (PHC) facilities in Cape Town. We used multilevel binomial logistic regression models to explore individual and contextual factors associated with MOV, with children aged 0–23 months at Level 1, nested within PHC facilities (Level 2). A total of 674 children and their caregivers were enrolled. MOV prevalence was 14.1%, ranging from 9.1% to 18.9% across sub-districts. Dose-specific MOV prevalence was highest for the second dose of measles vaccine (9.5%) and lowest for the first dose of rotavirus vaccine (0.6%). The likelihood of a child experiencing MOV was significantly associated with caregivers’ low level of education (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.53, 95% credible interval (CrI): 1.13–11.03), recent receipt of immunisation messages (OR = 0.46, 95%CrI: 0.25–0.87), shared immunisation decision making by both parents (OR = 0.21, 95%CrI: 0.07–0.62) and health facility staff number (OR = 0.18, 95%CrI: 0.06–0.61). The burden of MOV among children in Cape Town is influenced by individual and contextual factors, which provide important opportunities for quality improvement and broader strategies to improve routine immunisation service delivery.