Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality

 

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dc.contributor.author Abrams, Amber L
dc.contributor.author Carden, Kirsty
dc.contributor.author Teta, Charles
dc.contributor.author Wågsæther, Katinka
dc.date.accessioned 2021-10-25T09:49:11Z
dc.date.available 2021-10-25T09:49:11Z
dc.date.issued 2021-10-09
dc.identifier 10.3390/w13202810
dc.identifier.citation Abrams, A.L., Carden, K., Teta, C. & Wågsæther, K. 2021. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality. <i>Water.</i> 13(20):2810. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/35284 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/35284
dc.description.abstract Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)—including drainage-services—is essential for public health and socio-economic development, but access remains inadequate and inequitable in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa. In South Africa, rural areas and small towns generally depend on a limited and climate-sensitive economic base (e.g., farming), and they have a limited capacity and are located in areas where transport challenges can increase WASH access risks. Climate change shifts hydrological cycles, which can worsen WASH access and increase susceptibility to the interlinked impacts of droughts and flooding in already vulnerable regions. We adopted a transdisciplinary approach to explore the needs, barriers, and vulnerabilities with respect to WASH in rural areas and small towns in South Africa—using two case studies to explore climate risk and vulnerability assessment (CRVA) in one rural village in the northern Limpopo province and a small town in the Western Cape province. This holistic approach considered natural (environment and climate) and socio-economic (economic, social, governance, and political) factors and how they interplay in hampering access to WASH. Extreme weather events characterized by frequent and intense droughts or floods aggravate surface and groundwater availability and damage water infrastructure while threatening agriculture-dependent livelihoods. The lack of reliable transport infrastructure increases risks posed by flooding as roads to vital supplies are prone to damage. High inequality linked to rising unemployment and the Apartheid legacy of a segregated service delivery system result in inequitable access to WASH services. The intertwined ways in which natural elements and historical, social, economic, governance, and policy aspects are changing in South Africa increase WASH vulnerability in rural areas and small towns. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en_US
dc.source Water en_US
dc.source.uri https://www.mdpi.com/journal/water
dc.title Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.date.updated 2021-10-22T13:55:49Z
dc.publisher.faculty Engineering and the Built Environment en_US
dc.publisher.department African Climate and Development Initiative
dc.source.journalvolume 13 en_US
dc.source.journalissue 20 en_US
dc.source.pagination 2810 en_US
dc.identifier.apacitation Abrams, A. L., Carden, K., Teta, C., & Wågsæther, K. (2021). Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality. <i>Water</i>, 13(20), 2810. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/35284 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Abrams, Amber L, Kirsty Carden, Charles Teta, and Katinka Wågsæther "Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality." <i>Water</i> 13, 20. (2021): 2810. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/35284 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Abrams AL, Carden K, Teta C, Wågsæther K. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality. Water. 2021;13(20):2810. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/35284. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Abrams, Amber L AU - Carden, Kirsty AU - Teta, Charles AU - Wågsæther, Katinka AB - Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)—including drainage-services—is essential for public health and socio-economic development, but access remains inadequate and inequitable in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa. In South Africa, rural areas and small towns generally depend on a limited and climate-sensitive economic base (e.g., farming), and they have a limited capacity and are located in areas where transport challenges can increase WASH access risks. Climate change shifts hydrological cycles, which can worsen WASH access and increase susceptibility to the interlinked impacts of droughts and flooding in already vulnerable regions. We adopted a transdisciplinary approach to explore the needs, barriers, and vulnerabilities with respect to WASH in rural areas and small towns in South Africa—using two case studies to explore climate risk and vulnerability assessment (CRVA) in one rural village in the northern Limpopo province and a small town in the Western Cape province. This holistic approach considered natural (environment and climate) and socio-economic (economic, social, governance, and political) factors and how they interplay in hampering access to WASH. Extreme weather events characterized by frequent and intense droughts or floods aggravate surface and groundwater availability and damage water infrastructure while threatening agriculture-dependent livelihoods. The lack of reliable transport infrastructure increases risks posed by flooding as roads to vital supplies are prone to damage. High inequality linked to rising unemployment and the Apartheid legacy of a segregated service delivery system result in inequitable access to WASH services. The intertwined ways in which natural elements and historical, social, economic, governance, and policy aspects are changing in South Africa increase WASH vulnerability in rural areas and small towns. DA - 2021-10-09 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town IS - 20 J1 - Water LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PY - 2021 T1 - Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality TI - Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/35284 ER - en_ZA


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