A Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve HPV Vaccination Coverage

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although most HPV infections are transient and asymptomatic, persistent infection with high-risk HPV types may results in diseases. Although there are currently three effective and safe prophylactic HPV vaccines that are used across the world, HPV vaccination coverage remains low. This review evaluates the effects of the interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and checked the reference lists of relevant articles for eligible studies. Thirty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Our review found that various evaluated interventions have improved HPV vaccination coverage, including narrative education, outreach plus reminders, reminders, financial incentives plus reminders, brief motivational behavioral interventions, provider prompts, training, training plus assessment and feedback, consultation, funding, and multicomponent interventions. However, the evaluation of these intervention was conducted in high-income countries, mainly the United States of America. There is, therefore, a need for studies to evaluate the effect of these interventions in low-and middle-income countries, where there is a high burden of HPV and limited HPV vaccination programs.