Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress

 

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisor Malcolm-Smith, Susan
dc.contributor.advisor Hamilton, Katie
dc.contributor.author Ross, Toni Carmen Faith
dc.date.accessioned 2020-02-05T07:25:46Z
dc.date.available 2020-02-05T07:25:46Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.citation Ross, T. 2019. Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress. en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/30863
dc.description.abstract Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit definitional impairments in social relatedness; a phenomenon that can be explained, in part, by their deficits in empathy. Despite the extent of these deficits, relatively little is known about which factors promote or impede empathic functioning within this group. To date, studies of neurotypical children and adolescents suggest the explanatory power of temperament, parenting style, and parenting stress; associations which have yet to be adequately explored with ASD. Thus, the overarching aim of this investigation was to test whether the aforementioned intra- and interindividual features would predict empathy amongst children and adolescents with ASD. To account for some of the heterogeneity in ASD, two groups of parent-child dyads were recruited: one comprising male children and adolescents with intact receptive and expressive language (n = 40, M = 7.68 years); the other, males with little to no language use in either domain (n = 40, M = 9.09 years). A third group of parent-child pairs comprising male neurotypical children and adolescents with age-appropriate language functioning was included as a comparison sample (n = 40, M = 9.53 years). Parents completed wellestablished questionnaires pertaining to child/adolescent temperament and empathy, as well as parenting style and parenting stress, primarily via telephonic interviews. Results showed that temperamental regulation and negative affectivity were linked to empathy within the neurotypical group in positive and inverse directions, respectively. Only regulatory processes were positively associated with empathy within the non-verbal ASD group, whilst only negative affectivity was inversely associated to empathy within the verbal ASD group. Further, warm, responsive, autonomy-promoting parenting was positively associated with empathy within the neurotypical group, whilst punitive and lax parenting were inversely associated with empathy. Positive forms of parenting were also found to predict empathy within both ASD groups – though somewhat less so within the verbal ASD group. Perhaps a consequence of the severity of their empathic deficits, lax and permissive parenting techniques were not tied to empathy within the ASD groups. Finally, parenting stress was inversely linked to empathy within the non-verbal ASD and neurotypical groups only. Results highlight that findings obtained within neurotypical samples cannot always be extrapolated to ASD. Results further underscore the need for ASD interventions to adopt a family systems perspective, teaching parents how to perceive and respond to their children in adaptive ways.
dc.subject autism
dc.subject parenting style
dc.subject parenting stress
dc.subject temperament
dc.subject empathy
dc.subject children
dc.subject adolescents
dc.title Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress
dc.type Master Thesis
dc.date.updated 2020-02-04T13:02:06Z
dc.language.rfc3066 eng
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Humanities
dc.publisher.department Department of Psychology
dc.type.qualificationlevel Masters
dc.type.qualificationname MSocSci
dc.identifier.apacitation Ross, T. C. F. (2019). <i>Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress</i>. (). ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11427/30863 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Ross, Toni Carmen Faith. <i>"Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress."</i> ., ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/30863 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Ross TCF. Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress. []. ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology, 2019 [cited yyyy month dd]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/30863 en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Thesis / Dissertation AU - Ross, Toni Carmen Faith AB - Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit definitional impairments in social relatedness; a phenomenon that can be explained, in part, by their deficits in empathy. Despite the extent of these deficits, relatively little is known about which factors promote or impede empathic functioning within this group. To date, studies of neurotypical children and adolescents suggest the explanatory power of temperament, parenting style, and parenting stress; associations which have yet to be adequately explored with ASD. Thus, the overarching aim of this investigation was to test whether the aforementioned intra- and interindividual features would predict empathy amongst children and adolescents with ASD. To account for some of the heterogeneity in ASD, two groups of parent-child dyads were recruited: one comprising male children and adolescents with intact receptive and expressive language (n = 40, M = 7.68 years); the other, males with little to no language use in either domain (n = 40, M = 9.09 years). A third group of parent-child pairs comprising male neurotypical children and adolescents with age-appropriate language functioning was included as a comparison sample (n = 40, M = 9.53 years). Parents completed wellestablished questionnaires pertaining to child/adolescent temperament and empathy, as well as parenting style and parenting stress, primarily via telephonic interviews. Results showed that temperamental regulation and negative affectivity were linked to empathy within the neurotypical group in positive and inverse directions, respectively. Only regulatory processes were positively associated with empathy within the non-verbal ASD group, whilst only negative affectivity was inversely associated to empathy within the verbal ASD group. Further, warm, responsive, autonomy-promoting parenting was positively associated with empathy within the neurotypical group, whilst punitive and lax parenting were inversely associated with empathy. Positive forms of parenting were also found to predict empathy within both ASD groups – though somewhat less so within the verbal ASD group. Perhaps a consequence of the severity of their empathic deficits, lax and permissive parenting techniques were not tied to empathy within the ASD groups. Finally, parenting stress was inversely linked to empathy within the non-verbal ASD and neurotypical groups only. Results highlight that findings obtained within neurotypical samples cannot always be extrapolated to ASD. Results further underscore the need for ASD interventions to adopt a family systems perspective, teaching parents how to perceive and respond to their children in adaptive ways. DA - 2019 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town KW - autism KW - parenting style KW - parenting stress KW - temperament KW - empathy KW - children KW - adolescents LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PY - 2019 T1 - Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress TI - Empathy in autism spectrum disorder: Predictions from child/adolescent temperament, parenting styles, and parenting stress UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/30863 ER - en_ZA


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record