Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking

 

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dc.contributor.advisor Bateman, Eric D en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Jithoo, Anamika en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-25T09:28:54Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-25T09:28:54Z
dc.date.issued 2007 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Jithoo, A. 2007. Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking. University of Cape Town. en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/25806
dc.description.abstract Background: The association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tobacco smoking has recently been highlighted. The reason for this association remains unclear, but is postulated to result from the effects of smoking on pulmonary host defences. Cannabis impairs the immune function of alveolar macrophages and has been reported to increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. Aim: To examine risk factors for both Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease and infection, in particular the effects of cannabis smoking. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey of 3512 persons aged ≥15 years was performed in a predominantly low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa. Information on a history of tuberculosis and various risk factors including cannabis smoking was collected by means of an administered questionnaire. Ziehl-Neelson stained sputum smears were examined for acid fast bacilli and cultured on Lowenstein Jensen slants. Tuberculin skin testing (TST) was performed and an induration of ≥10mm read after 48-72 hours was considered positive. One joint year is defined as one joint per day for one year. Results: The prevalence of ever smoking cannabis was 11.3% (23% in men; 2.6% in women) and 6.4% were current smokers. A history of tuberculosis was reported by 9.7%; current disease confirmed in 1 %, and 76% had a positive TST. After adjusting for age, sex, tobacco smoking, income, education, occupational exposure, incarceration, alcohol use and body mass index, persons with a cumulative cannabis exposure of >70 joint years (approximately equivalent to 20 tobacco packyears) had an increased risk of past/current tuberculosis disease (OR 3.2; Cl:1.8 - 5.6). Cannabis joint years did not show an association with tuberculosis infection. Conclusions: This population study shows that cannabis smoking is positively associated with past/current tuberculosis disease, suggesting that cannabis may be a risk factor in the development of tuberculous disease. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.subject.other Tuberculosis en_ZA
dc.subject.other Public Health en_ZA
dc.title Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking en_ZA
dc.type Master Thesis
dc.date.updated 2017-08-23T13:21:05Z
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Thesis en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Public Health and Family Medicine en_ZA
dc.type.qualificationlevel Masters
dc.type.qualificationname MPH en_ZA
uct.type.filetype
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Jithoo, A. (2007). <i>Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking</i>. (Thesis). University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Department of Public Health and Family Medicine. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11427/25806 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Jithoo, Anamika. <i>"Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking."</i> Thesis., University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/25806 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Jithoo A. Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking. [Thesis]. University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, 2007 [cited yyyy month dd]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/25806 en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Thesis / Dissertation AU - Jithoo, Anamika AB - Background: The association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tobacco smoking has recently been highlighted. The reason for this association remains unclear, but is postulated to result from the effects of smoking on pulmonary host defences. Cannabis impairs the immune function of alveolar macrophages and has been reported to increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. Aim: To examine risk factors for both Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease and infection, in particular the effects of cannabis smoking. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey of 3512 persons aged ≥15 years was performed in a predominantly low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa. Information on a history of tuberculosis and various risk factors including cannabis smoking was collected by means of an administered questionnaire. Ziehl-Neelson stained sputum smears were examined for acid fast bacilli and cultured on Lowenstein Jensen slants. Tuberculin skin testing (TST) was performed and an induration of ≥10mm read after 48-72 hours was considered positive. One joint year is defined as one joint per day for one year. Results: The prevalence of ever smoking cannabis was 11.3% (23% in men; 2.6% in women) and 6.4% were current smokers. A history of tuberculosis was reported by 9.7%; current disease confirmed in 1 %, and 76% had a positive TST. After adjusting for age, sex, tobacco smoking, income, education, occupational exposure, incarceration, alcohol use and body mass index, persons with a cumulative cannabis exposure of &gt;70 joint years (approximately equivalent to 20 tobacco packyears) had an increased risk of past/current tuberculosis disease (OR 3.2; Cl:1.8 - 5.6). Cannabis joint years did not show an association with tuberculosis infection. Conclusions: This population study shows that cannabis smoking is positively associated with past/current tuberculosis disease, suggesting that cannabis may be a risk factor in the development of tuberculous disease. DA - 2007 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2007 T1 - Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking TI - Risk factors for tuberculosis in a low-income urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, with particular reference to the role of cannabis smoking UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/25806 ER - en_ZA


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