Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity

 

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dc.contributor.advisor Foster, Don en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Tredoux, Colin Getty en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-20T12:33:17Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-20T12:33:17Z
dc.date.issued 1996 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Tredoux, C. 1996. Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity. University of Cape Town. en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/21840
dc.description Bibliography: pages 239-248. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract This thesis addresses a practical problem. The problem concerns the evaluation of 'identification parades', or 'lineups', which are frequently used by police to secure evidence of identification. It is well recognised that this evidence is frequently unreliable, and has led on occasion to tragic miscarriages of justice. A review of South African law is conducted and reported in the thesis, and shows that the legal treatment of identification parades centres on the requirement that parades should be composed of people of similar appearance to the suspect. I argue that it is not possible, in practice, to assess whether this requirement has been met and that this is a significant failing. Psychological work on identification parades includes the development of measures of parade fairness, and the investigation of alternate lineup structures. Measures of parade fairness suggested in the literature are indirectly derived, though; and I argue that they fail to address the question of physical similarity. In addition, I develop ways of reasoning inferentially (statistically) with measures of parade fairness, and suggest a new measure of parade fairness. The absence of a direct measure of similarity constitutes the rationale for the empirical component of the thesis. I propose a measure of facial similarity, in which the similarity of two faces is defined as the Euclidean distance between them in a principal component space, or representational basis. (The space is determined by treating a set of digitized faces as numerical vectors, and by submitting these to principal component analysis). A similar definition is provided for 'facial distinctiveness', namely as the distance of a face from the origin or centroid of the space. The validity of the proposed similarity measure is investigated in several ways, in a total of seven studies, involving approximately 700 subjects. 350 frontal face images and 280 profile face images were collected for use as experimental materials, and as the source for the component space underlying the similarity measure. The weight of the evidence, particularly from a set of similarity rating tasks, suggests that the measure corresponds reasonably well to perceptions of facial similarity. Results from a mock witness experiment showed that it is also strongly, and monotonically related to standard measures of lineup fairness. Evidence from several investigations of the distinctiveness measure, on the other hand, showed that it does not appear to be related to perceptions of facial distinctiveness. An additional empirical investigation examined the relation between target-foil similarity and identification performance. Performance was greater for lineups of low similarity, both when the perpetrator was present, and when the perpetrator was absent. The consequences of this for the understanding of lineup construction and evaluation are discussed. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.subject.other Psychology en_ZA
dc.subject.other Facial Recognition en_ZA
dc.title Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity en_ZA
dc.type Doctoral Thesis
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Thesis en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Humanities en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Psychology en_ZA
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral
dc.type.qualificationname PhD en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Tredoux, C. G. (1996). <i>Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity</i>. (Thesis). University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11427/21840 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Tredoux, Colin Getty. <i>"Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity."</i> Thesis., University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology, 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/21840 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Tredoux CG. Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity. [Thesis]. University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Humanities ,Department of Psychology, 1996 [cited yyyy month dd]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/21840 en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Thesis / Dissertation AU - Tredoux, Colin Getty AB - This thesis addresses a practical problem. The problem concerns the evaluation of 'identification parades', or 'lineups', which are frequently used by police to secure evidence of identification. It is well recognised that this evidence is frequently unreliable, and has led on occasion to tragic miscarriages of justice. A review of South African law is conducted and reported in the thesis, and shows that the legal treatment of identification parades centres on the requirement that parades should be composed of people of similar appearance to the suspect. I argue that it is not possible, in practice, to assess whether this requirement has been met and that this is a significant failing. Psychological work on identification parades includes the development of measures of parade fairness, and the investigation of alternate lineup structures. Measures of parade fairness suggested in the literature are indirectly derived, though; and I argue that they fail to address the question of physical similarity. In addition, I develop ways of reasoning inferentially (statistically) with measures of parade fairness, and suggest a new measure of parade fairness. The absence of a direct measure of similarity constitutes the rationale for the empirical component of the thesis. I propose a measure of facial similarity, in which the similarity of two faces is defined as the Euclidean distance between them in a principal component space, or representational basis. (The space is determined by treating a set of digitized faces as numerical vectors, and by submitting these to principal component analysis). A similar definition is provided for 'facial distinctiveness', namely as the distance of a face from the origin or centroid of the space. The validity of the proposed similarity measure is investigated in several ways, in a total of seven studies, involving approximately 700 subjects. 350 frontal face images and 280 profile face images were collected for use as experimental materials, and as the source for the component space underlying the similarity measure. The weight of the evidence, particularly from a set of similarity rating tasks, suggests that the measure corresponds reasonably well to perceptions of facial similarity. Results from a mock witness experiment showed that it is also strongly, and monotonically related to standard measures of lineup fairness. Evidence from several investigations of the distinctiveness measure, on the other hand, showed that it does not appear to be related to perceptions of facial distinctiveness. An additional empirical investigation examined the relation between target-foil similarity and identification performance. Performance was greater for lineups of low similarity, both when the perpetrator was present, and when the perpetrator was absent. The consequences of this for the understanding of lineup construction and evaluation are discussed. DA - 1996 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 1996 T1 - Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity TI - Evaluating the fairness of identification parades with measures of facial similarity UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/21840 ER - en_ZA


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