Anti-retroviral therapy increases the prevalence of dyslipidemia in South African HIV-infected patients

Purpose Data on the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa is sparse. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of HIV-infected South African adults. METHODS: We studied HIV-infected patients who were either antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive or receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based or protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART. Evaluation included fasting lipograms, oral glucose tolerance tests and clinical anthropometry. Dyslipidemia was defined using the NCEP ATPIII guidelines. RESULTS: The median age of the participants was 34 years (range 19-68 years) and 78% were women. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in 406 ART-naive and 551 participants on ART was 90.0% and 85%, respectively. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) was the most common abnormality [290/406 (71%) ART-naïve and 237/551 (43%) ART- participants]. Participants on ART had higher triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDLC) and HDLC than the ART-naïve group. Severe dyslipidaemia, (LDLC> 4.9 mmol/L or TG >5.0 mmol/L) was present in <5% of participants. In multivariate analyses there were complex associations between age, gender, type and duration of ART and body composition and LDLC, HDLC and TG, which differed between ART-naïve and ART-participants. CONCLUSION: Participants on ART had higher TG, TC, LDLC and HDLC than those who were ART-naïve but severe lipid abnormalities requiring evaluation and treatment were uncommon.