The energy profile of a rural community

 

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dc.contributor.author Lloyd, PJ
dc.contributor.author Dick, A
dc.contributor.author Howells, M
dc.date.accessioned 2016-02-04T07:51:56Z
dc.date.available 2016-02-04T07:51:56Z
dc.date.issued 2004
dc.identifier.citation Lloyd, P., Dick, A., & Howells, M. I. (2004). The energy profile of a rural community. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 15(3), 80-87. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1021-447X en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16736
dc.description.abstract We present the results of a survey on domestic energy use in the community of Nkweletshini in south-western Kwa-Zulu Natal during 2002. The community has a low housing density, below the 50 households per km2 measure used by Eskom as the limit for future electrification. Houses were modest, with a median number of 3 rooms, and built of either clay or cement blocks, and generally thatched although some had corrugated iron roofs. Many in the community are employed, but it is relatively low-level employment, with a median income of about R660/month/household. 96% of all households cook on wood collected free of charge in the vicinity. 3% cook on paraffin and 1% on LP gas. The primary appliance is a wood stove; 4% of the households use an open brazier (“imbaula”). 78% of households reported problems with the fuel they used because it made them cough (43%); it smelled (30%); or it smoked and hurt the eyes (24%). 65% of the households reported a second choice of fuel, which was generally paraffin. The cost of paraffin relative to wood was cited as its major disadvantage. Cleaner fuels were preferred on social occasions, when the household had guests. Cooking took place once or twice a day, rarely in the evening, food cooked earlier in the day being heated for an evening meal. The profiles for space heating and water heating were very similar to that for cooking, with a significant quantity of wood being burned for these purposes even in summer. Space heating took place throughout the day, with a morning peak between 06h00 and 08h00, starting somewhat earlier in winter. There was little water heating during the day. There were two sources of lighting in the community, candles (70%) and paraffin lamps (30%). 59% of the candle users did not like the source of light, while 62% of the paraffin users did not like lamps. The average household bought 3 packets (each containing 6 candles) per month. The primary appliances in Nkweletshini were radios (91%, battery powered); kettles (86% of households, non-electrical); television (34%, battery powered), and cell phones (17%, battery powered). Average radio use was close to 24 h/day. The average household consumed 12.1bundles of wood per month, or somewhere between 300 and 400 kg of wood. Most households collected wood themselves – only two relied on neighbours or relatives. Wood collection was clearly a major effort. Most wood was collected first thing in the morning, somewhat earlier in summer than in winter, but even in winter 25% of the households were collecting wood between 04h00 and 06h00. It was only between the hours of midnight and 04h00 that collection ceased. 94% of the householders purchased paraffin. Monthly volumes averaged 12.6 litres per household that bought paraffin. The calculated average price was R3.00 per litre, which is very close to the known cost of paraffin in the area. Over 20% of households made use of car batteries, primarily for television, and recharged them twice a month on average. 67% of the households purchased the 9V PM9 batteries, primarily for radio, using 2 per month on average. Less than 10% of the households made much use of torches, buying about 4 batteries per month. These results are discussed in terms of the total energy demand of the households (4 000 to 5 500 MJ/month) and the time-of-day requirements that peak in the early morning rather than in the evening as is the case in urban and semi-urban environments. The potential impact of the electricity basic services support tariff on indoor air pollution and health in South Africa en_ZA
dc.language eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Energy Research Centre en_ZA
dc.source Journal of Energy in Southern Africa en_ZA
dc.title The energy profile of a rural community en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.date.updated 2016-02-02T14:26:00Z
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
uct.subject.keywords energy en_ZA
uct.subject.keywords rural en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment
dc.publisher.department Energy Research Centre en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Lloyd, P., Dick, A., & Howells, M. (2004). The energy profile of a rural community. <i>Journal of Energy in Southern Africa</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16736 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Lloyd, PJ, A Dick, and M Howells "The energy profile of a rural community." <i>Journal of Energy in Southern Africa</i> (2004) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16736 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Lloyd P, Dick A, Howells M. The energy profile of a rural community. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 2004; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16736. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Lloyd, PJ AU - Dick, A AU - Howells, M AB - We present the results of a survey on domestic energy use in the community of Nkweletshini in south-western Kwa-Zulu Natal during 2002. The community has a low housing density, below the 50 households per km2 measure used by Eskom as the limit for future electrification. Houses were modest, with a median number of 3 rooms, and built of either clay or cement blocks, and generally thatched although some had corrugated iron roofs. Many in the community are employed, but it is relatively low-level employment, with a median income of about R660/month/household. 96% of all households cook on wood collected free of charge in the vicinity. 3% cook on paraffin and 1% on LP gas. The primary appliance is a wood stove; 4% of the households use an open brazier (“imbaula”). 78% of households reported problems with the fuel they used because it made them cough (43%); it smelled (30%); or it smoked and hurt the eyes (24%). 65% of the households reported a second choice of fuel, which was generally paraffin. The cost of paraffin relative to wood was cited as its major disadvantage. Cleaner fuels were preferred on social occasions, when the household had guests. Cooking took place once or twice a day, rarely in the evening, food cooked earlier in the day being heated for an evening meal. The profiles for space heating and water heating were very similar to that for cooking, with a significant quantity of wood being burned for these purposes even in summer. Space heating took place throughout the day, with a morning peak between 06h00 and 08h00, starting somewhat earlier in winter. There was little water heating during the day. There were two sources of lighting in the community, candles (70%) and paraffin lamps (30%). 59% of the candle users did not like the source of light, while 62% of the paraffin users did not like lamps. The average household bought 3 packets (each containing 6 candles) per month. The primary appliances in Nkweletshini were radios (91%, battery powered); kettles (86% of households, non-electrical); television (34%, battery powered), and cell phones (17%, battery powered). Average radio use was close to 24 h/day. The average household consumed 12.1bundles of wood per month, or somewhere between 300 and 400 kg of wood. Most households collected wood themselves – only two relied on neighbours or relatives. Wood collection was clearly a major effort. Most wood was collected first thing in the morning, somewhat earlier in summer than in winter, but even in winter 25% of the households were collecting wood between 04h00 and 06h00. It was only between the hours of midnight and 04h00 that collection ceased. 94% of the householders purchased paraffin. Monthly volumes averaged 12.6 litres per household that bought paraffin. The calculated average price was R3.00 per litre, which is very close to the known cost of paraffin in the area. Over 20% of households made use of car batteries, primarily for television, and recharged them twice a month on average. 67% of the households purchased the 9V PM9 batteries, primarily for radio, using 2 per month on average. Less than 10% of the households made much use of torches, buying about 4 batteries per month. These results are discussed in terms of the total energy demand of the households (4 000 to 5 500 MJ/month) and the time-of-day requirements that peak in the early morning rather than in the evening as is the case in urban and semi-urban environments. The potential impact of the electricity basic services support tariff on indoor air pollution and health in South Africa DA - 2004 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town J1 - Journal of Energy in Southern Africa LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2004 SM - 1021-447X T1 - The energy profile of a rural community TI - The energy profile of a rural community UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16736 ER - en_ZA


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