Childhood pneumonia - progress and challenges


Show simple item record Zar, Heather J Madhi, Shabir A 2016-02-01T10:00:20Z 2016-02-01T10:00:20Z 2006
dc.identifier.citation Zar, H. J., & Madhi, S. A. (2006). Childhood pneumonia-progress and challenges. South African Medical Journal, 96(9), 890-899. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0256-9574 en_ZA
dc.description.abstract Remarkable progress has been made in the development of antimicrobial therapy, effective vaccines and pneumonia management guidelines in the past 50 years. However, pneumonia is currently the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries, accounting for approximately 20% of childhood deaths. This article reviews changes in the epidemiology, management and prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries, specifically in Africa and South Africa, and addresses future challenges. MAIN FINDINGS: The HIV epidemic has sharply increased the incidence, severity of, and mortality due to, childhood pneumonia. Bacterial infection remains a major cause of pneumonia mortality. Additional pathogens such as Pneumocystis jirovecii and Gram-negative bacteria are found in HIV-infected children, associated with a high mortality. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important cause of acute pneumonia in both HIV-infected and uninfected children. Use of case management guidelines can substantially reduce neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality and pneumonia-specific mortality. General preventive interventions including micronutrient supplementation with zinc and vitamin A, and immunisations can substantially reduce the burden of childhood pneumonia. Despite a lower efficacy in HIV-infected children, vaccination protects against disease in a significant proportion of children. In South Africa, new advances over the past 50 years have included greater access to primary health care for children, the use of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines in primary care, development of guidelines for diagnosis and management of childhood pneumonia and adoption of an expanded immunisation programme that includes coverage for Haemophilus influenzae type b. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine recently licensed in South Africa also has the potential to significantly reduce the burden of childhood pneumonia. Recent roll-out of the national antiretroviral programme can reduce the incidence and severity of HIV-associated pneumonia through the prevention of HIV infection, use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and treatment with antiretrovirals. CONCLUSION: Available, effective interventions for prevention and treatment of childhood pneumonia exist; the challenge is to achieve widespread implementation and high coverage rates in developing countries. Greater access to newer vaccines and to antiretroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected children is necessary to further reduce the burden of childhood pneumonia and the discrepancies in global child lung health. en_ZA
dc.language eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Health and Medical Publishing Group en_ZA
dc.source South African Medical Journal en_ZA
dc.title Childhood pneumonia - progress and challenges en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA 2016-01-22T13:26:19Z
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
uct.subject.keywords pneumonia en_ZA
uct.subject.keywords childhood en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Division of Paediatric Medicine en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
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