Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide

 

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dc.contributor.advisor Sturrock, Edward D en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Larmuth, Kate Morgan en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2016-01-26T12:03:31Z
dc.date.available 2016-01-26T12:03:31Z
dc.date.issued 2015 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Larmuth, K. 2015. Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide. University of Cape Town. en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16561
dc.description Includes bibliographical references en_ZA
dc.description.abstract Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase that consists of two homologous catalytic domains (N and C) with different substrate specificities. ACE is a central component of the intrinsic brain renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (BRAAS), well renowned as the regulator of blood pressure. The BRAAS has alternate functions that extend beyond fluid and blood pressure homeostasis into areas such as neurological function. As a result, it is implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). ACE's specific mechanistic role in AD is not entirely clear and is somewhat controversial. However, it has been shown that ACE hydrolyses the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, the putative causative agent of AD. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of ACE hydrolysis of Aβ by determining : 1) the kinetic parameters of five different forms of human ACE with various N-terminal amyloid beta (Aβ) substrates; 2) the specific active site determinants of Aβ-domain selectivity; and 3) the high-resolution crystal structures of the N-domain of ACE in complex with Aβ(1-16), Aβ(10-16), Aβ(4-10), the FRET Aβ(4-10)Y and Aβ(35-42) peptides. For the physiological Aβ(1-16) peptide, a novel ACE cleavage site was found at His14/Gln15. Furthermore, Aβ(1-16 ) was preferentially cleaved by the truncated N-domain; however, the presence of an inactive C-domain in full-length ACE greatly reduced enzyme activity and affected domain-selectivity. Two fluorogenic substrates, designed specifically to assess ACE's mechanism of Aβ hydrolysis Aβ(4-10)Q and Aβ(4-10)Y, underwent endoproteolytic cleavage at the Asp7/Ser8 bond. The Aβ(4-10)Q peptide was a poor substrate of ACE but was N-selective, with a selectivity driven largely by interactions with the domain-specific residues of the S2 and S2' pockets. The selectivity of the S2' residues were confirmed with a similar, more physiological, fluorogenic Aβ(4-10)Y peptide. This work provides further understanding towards the substrate determinants of N-selectivity, highlighting the importance of the S2' Ser357. ACE C-domain hydrolysed Aβ(4-10)Y with modest efficiency compared to the other substrates, where hydrolysis under the same conditions did not occur. Moreover, Aβ(4-10)Y also displayed N-domain selectivity. In contrast to Aβ(1-16) and Aβ(410)Q, both sACE and the double C-domain (CC-sACE) construct showed positive domain cooperativity towards Aβ(4-10)Y. The high-resolution crystal structures of the N-domain in complex with five Aβ peptide fragments provided an overlapping, conserved, molecular mechanism of peptide binding and evidence of the enzyme's broad exoprotease activity. In addition to the kinetic and structural studies, ACE's signalling response to the N-selective Aβ(1-16) and Aβ(1-42) was investigated using immunodetection and mass spectrometry. Similar to the ACE inhibitor lisinopril, the Aβ peptides elicited ACE signalling by phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic Ser1270 residue and JNK activation. The signalling response of ACE was coupled to increased ACE activity an d expression on treatment with Aβ(1-42). These studies allowed us to rationalise the increased ACE activity and expression found in AD, may arise through direct interactions with Aβ. This work provides a kinetic, structural and mechanistic understanding of the selective cleavage of Aβ by the N and C catalytic sites of ACE. Due to the broad substrate specificity of the two domains of ACE, and the overarching N- selectivity of Aβ hydrolysis, these findings provide rationale for further in vivo pharmacological studies on the mechanism of action C- domain-selective inhibitors, in the context of AD. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.subject.other Medical Biochemistry en_ZA
dc.title Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide en_ZA
dc.type Doctoral Thesis
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Thesis en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Division of Medical Biochemistry en_ZA
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral
dc.type.qualificationname PhD en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Larmuth, K. M. (2015). <i>Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide</i>. (Thesis). University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Division of Medical Biochemistry. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16561 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Larmuth, Kate Morgan. <i>"Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide."</i> Thesis., University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Division of Medical Biochemistry, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16561 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Larmuth KM. Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide. [Thesis]. University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Health Sciences ,Division of Medical Biochemistry, 2015 [cited yyyy month dd]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16561 en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Thesis / Dissertation AU - Larmuth, Kate Morgan AB - Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase that consists of two homologous catalytic domains (N and C) with different substrate specificities. ACE is a central component of the intrinsic brain renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (BRAAS), well renowned as the regulator of blood pressure. The BRAAS has alternate functions that extend beyond fluid and blood pressure homeostasis into areas such as neurological function. As a result, it is implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). ACE's specific mechanistic role in AD is not entirely clear and is somewhat controversial. However, it has been shown that ACE hydrolyses the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, the putative causative agent of AD. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of ACE hydrolysis of Aβ by determining : 1) the kinetic parameters of five different forms of human ACE with various N-terminal amyloid beta (Aβ) substrates; 2) the specific active site determinants of Aβ-domain selectivity; and 3) the high-resolution crystal structures of the N-domain of ACE in complex with Aβ(1-16), Aβ(10-16), Aβ(4-10), the FRET Aβ(4-10)Y and Aβ(35-42) peptides. For the physiological Aβ(1-16) peptide, a novel ACE cleavage site was found at His14/Gln15. Furthermore, Aβ(1-16 ) was preferentially cleaved by the truncated N-domain; however, the presence of an inactive C-domain in full-length ACE greatly reduced enzyme activity and affected domain-selectivity. Two fluorogenic substrates, designed specifically to assess ACE's mechanism of Aβ hydrolysis Aβ(4-10)Q and Aβ(4-10)Y, underwent endoproteolytic cleavage at the Asp7/Ser8 bond. The Aβ(4-10)Q peptide was a poor substrate of ACE but was N-selective, with a selectivity driven largely by interactions with the domain-specific residues of the S2 and S2' pockets. The selectivity of the S2' residues were confirmed with a similar, more physiological, fluorogenic Aβ(4-10)Y peptide. This work provides further understanding towards the substrate determinants of N-selectivity, highlighting the importance of the S2' Ser357. ACE C-domain hydrolysed Aβ(4-10)Y with modest efficiency compared to the other substrates, where hydrolysis under the same conditions did not occur. Moreover, Aβ(4-10)Y also displayed N-domain selectivity. In contrast to Aβ(1-16) and Aβ(410)Q, both sACE and the double C-domain (CC-sACE) construct showed positive domain cooperativity towards Aβ(4-10)Y. The high-resolution crystal structures of the N-domain in complex with five Aβ peptide fragments provided an overlapping, conserved, molecular mechanism of peptide binding and evidence of the enzyme's broad exoprotease activity. In addition to the kinetic and structural studies, ACE's signalling response to the N-selective Aβ(1-16) and Aβ(1-42) was investigated using immunodetection and mass spectrometry. Similar to the ACE inhibitor lisinopril, the Aβ peptides elicited ACE signalling by phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic Ser1270 residue and JNK activation. The signalling response of ACE was coupled to increased ACE activity an d expression on treatment with Aβ(1-42). These studies allowed us to rationalise the increased ACE activity and expression found in AD, may arise through direct interactions with Aβ. This work provides a kinetic, structural and mechanistic understanding of the selective cleavage of Aβ by the N and C catalytic sites of ACE. Due to the broad substrate specificity of the two domains of ACE, and the overarching N- selectivity of Aβ hydrolysis, these findings provide rationale for further in vivo pharmacological studies on the mechanism of action C- domain-selective inhibitors, in the context of AD. DA - 2015 DB - OpenUCT DP - University of Cape Town LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2015 T1 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide TI - Angiotensin-converting enzyme cleavage of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16561 ER - en_ZA


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