The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

 

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dc.contributor.author Strauss, André en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Bernardo, Danilo V en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Salazar-García, Domingo C en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Talamo, Sahra en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Jaouen, Klervia en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Hubbe, Mark en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Black, Sue en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Wilkinson, Caroline en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Richards, Michael Phillip en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-12-28T06:50:16Z
dc.date.available 2015-12-28T06:50:16Z
dc.date.issued 2015 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Strauss, A., Oliveira, R. E., Bernardo, D. V., Salazar-García, D. C., Talamo, S., Jaouen, K., ... & Araujo, A. G. (2015). The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil). PloS one, 10(9), e0137456. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137456 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16062
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456
dc.description.abstract We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Skull en_ZA
dc.subject.other Head en_ZA
dc.subject.other Archaeology en_ZA
dc.subject.other Cranium en_ZA
dc.subject.other Strontium en_ZA
dc.subject.other Radioactive carbon dating en_ZA
dc.subject.other Archaeological excavation en_ZA
dc.subject.other Teeth en_ZA
dc.title The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil) en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2015 Strauss et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Science en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Archaeology en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Strauss, A., Oliveira, R. E., Bernardo, D. V., Salazar-García, D. C., Talamo, S., Jaouen, K., ... Richards, M. P. (2015). The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil). <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16062 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Strauss, André, Rodrigo Elias Oliveira, Danilo V Bernardo, Domingo C Salazar-García, Sahra Talamo, Klervia Jaouen, Mark Hubbe, Sue Black, Caroline Wilkinson, and Michael Phillip Richards "The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)." <i>PLoS One</i> (2015) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16062 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Strauss A, Oliveira RE, Bernardo DV, Salazar-García DC, Talamo S, Jaouen K, et al. The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil). PLoS One. 2015; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16062. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Strauss, André AU - Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias AU - Bernardo, Danilo V AU - Salazar-García, Domingo C AU - Talamo, Sahra AU - Jaouen, Klervia AU - Hubbe, Mark AU - Black, Sue AU - Wilkinson, Caroline AU - Richards, Michael Phillip AB - We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. DA - 2015 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0137456 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2015 T1 - The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil) TI - The oldest case of decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil) UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16062 ER - en_ZA


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.