Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach

 

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dc.contributor.author Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Tiffin, Nicki en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-12-28T06:45:00Z
dc.date.available 2015-12-28T06:45:00Z
dc.date.issued 2013 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Okpechi, I. G., Chukwuonye, I. I., Tiffin, N., Madukwe, O. O., Onyeonoro, U. U., Umeizudike, T. I., & Ogah, O. S. (2013). Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach. PloS one, 8(9), e73403. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073403 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16016
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073403
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Hypertension en_ZA
dc.subject.other Nigeria en_ZA
dc.subject.other Blood pressure en_ZA
dc.subject.other Obesity en_ZA
dc.subject.other Alcohol consumption en_ZA
dc.subject.other Diabetes mellitus en_ZA
dc.subject.other Health risk analysis en_ZA
dc.subject.other Smoking habits en_ZA
dc.title Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2013 Okpechi et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Division of Nephrology and Hypertension en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Okpechi, I. G., Chukwuonye, I. I., Tiffin, N., Madukwe, O. O., Onyeonoro, U. U., Umeizudike, T. I., & Ogah, O. S. (2013). Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach. <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16016 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth, Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye, Nicki Tiffin, Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe, Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu Umeizudike, and Okechukwu Samuel Ogah "Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach." <i>PLoS One</i> (2013) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16016 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Okpechi IG, Chukwuonye II, Tiffin N, Madukwe OO, Onyeonoro UU, Umeizudike TI, et al. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach. PLoS One. 2013; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16016. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth AU - Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie AU - Tiffin, Nicki AU - Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam AU - Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna AU - Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu AU - Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel AB - BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. DA - 2013 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0073403 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2013 T1 - Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach TI - Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/16016 ER - en_ZA


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.