The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults

 

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dc.contributor.author Grimsrud, Anna en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Stein, Dan J en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Seedat, Soraya en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Williams, David en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Myer, Landon en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-12-20T16:08:01Z
dc.date.available 2015-12-20T16:08:01Z
dc.date.issued 2009 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Grimsrud, A., Stein, D. J., Seedat, S., Williams, D., & Myer, L. (2009). The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults. PLoS One, 4(5), e5552. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005552 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15931
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005552
dc.description.abstract Objective: Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. METHODS: Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05), while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45), but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Hypertension en_ZA
dc.subject.other Depression en_ZA
dc.subject.other Anxiety disorders en_ZA
dc.subject.other Mental health and psychiatry en_ZA
dc.subject.other Demography en_ZA
dc.subject.other Diagnostic medicine en_ZA
dc.subject.other Social stratification en_ZA
dc.subject.other Adults en_ZA
dc.title The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2009 Grimsrud et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Public Health and Family Medicine en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Grimsrud, A., Stein, D. J., Seedat, S., Williams, D., & Myer, L. (2009). The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults. <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15931 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Grimsrud, Anna, Dan J Stein, Soraya Seedat, David Williams, and Landon Myer "The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults." <i>PLoS One</i> (2009) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15931 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Grimsrud A, Stein DJ, Seedat S, Williams D, Myer L. The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults. PLoS One. 2009; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15931. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Grimsrud, Anna AU - Stein, Dan J AU - Seedat, Soraya AU - Williams, David AU - Myer, Landon AB - Objective: Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. METHODS: Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05), while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45), but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders. DA - 2009 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0005552 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2009 T1 - The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults TI - The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15931 ER - en_ZA


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.