Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa

 

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dc.contributor.author Okanga, Sharon en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Cumming, Graeme en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Hockey, Phillip en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-27T09:30:51Z
dc.date.available 2015-11-27T09:30:51Z
dc.date.issued 2013 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Okanga, S., Cumming, G. S., & Hockeyˆ, P. A. (2013). Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa. Malaria journal, 12(1), 1-14. en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15385
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-370
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND:The close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. Factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality. METHODS: The influence of mosquito abundance and occurrence on the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Ploceidae family (weavers) was examined, taking into account factors with an indirect influence upon mosquito ecology. Mosquitoes and weaver blood samples were simultaneously collected in the Western Cape, South Africa over a two-year period, and patterns of vector abundance and infection prevalence were compared. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and salinity measurements were taken at 20 permanent waterbodies. Rainfall during this period was also quantified using remotely sensed data from up to 6months prior to sampling months. RESULTS: Sixteen wetlands had weavers infected with avian malaria. More than half of the mosquitoes caught were trapped at one site; when this site was excluded, the number of mosquitoes trapped did not vary significantly between sites. The majority of mosquitoes collected belonged to the predominant vector species group for avian malaria (Culex culex species complex). Seasonal variation occurred in infection and mosquito prevalence, water pH and water temperature, with greater variability observed in summer than in winter. There was a significant correlation of infection prevalence with rainfall two months prior to sampling months. Mosquito prevalence patterns across the landscape also showed a close relationship to patterns of rainfall. Contrary to predictions, a pattern of asynchronous co-variation occurred between mosquito prevalence and infection prevalence. CONCLUSION: Overall, salinity, rainfall, and mosquito prevalence and season were the most influential vector-related factors on infection prevalence. After comparison with related studies, the tentative conclusion drawn was that patterns of asynchronous variation between malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance were concurrent with those reported in lag response patterns. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher BioMed Central Ltd en_ZA
dc.rights This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 en_ZA
dc.source Malaria Journal en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://www.malariajournal.com/ en_ZA
dc.subject.other Avian malaria en_ZA
dc.subject.other Mosquito en_ZA
dc.subject.other Western Cape en_ZA
dc.subject.other South Africa en_ZA
dc.title Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder 2013 Okanga et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Science en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Okanga, S., Cumming, G., & Hockey, P. (2013). Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa. <i>Malaria Journal</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15385 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Okanga, Sharon, Graeme Cumming, and Phillip Hockey "Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa." <i>Malaria Journal</i> (2013) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15385 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Okanga S, Cumming G, Hockey P. Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa. Malaria Journal. 2013; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15385. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Okanga, Sharon AU - Cumming, Graeme AU - Hockey, Phillip AB - BACKGROUND:The close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. Factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality. METHODS: The influence of mosquito abundance and occurrence on the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Ploceidae family (weavers) was examined, taking into account factors with an indirect influence upon mosquito ecology. Mosquitoes and weaver blood samples were simultaneously collected in the Western Cape, South Africa over a two-year period, and patterns of vector abundance and infection prevalence were compared. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and salinity measurements were taken at 20 permanent waterbodies. Rainfall during this period was also quantified using remotely sensed data from up to 6months prior to sampling months. RESULTS: Sixteen wetlands had weavers infected with avian malaria. More than half of the mosquitoes caught were trapped at one site; when this site was excluded, the number of mosquitoes trapped did not vary significantly between sites. The majority of mosquitoes collected belonged to the predominant vector species group for avian malaria (Culex culex species complex). Seasonal variation occurred in infection and mosquito prevalence, water pH and water temperature, with greater variability observed in summer than in winter. There was a significant correlation of infection prevalence with rainfall two months prior to sampling months. Mosquito prevalence patterns across the landscape also showed a close relationship to patterns of rainfall. Contrary to predictions, a pattern of asynchronous co-variation occurred between mosquito prevalence and infection prevalence. CONCLUSION: Overall, salinity, rainfall, and mosquito prevalence and season were the most influential vector-related factors on infection prevalence. After comparison with related studies, the tentative conclusion drawn was that patterns of asynchronous variation between malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance were concurrent with those reported in lag response patterns. DA - 2013 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1186/1475-2875-12-370 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - Malaria Journal LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2013 T1 - Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa TI - Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15385 ER - en_ZA


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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License