Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission

 

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dc.contributor.author Richardson, Eugene T en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Morrow, Carl D en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Kalil, Darryl B en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Bekker, Linda-Gail en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Wood, Robin en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-23T12:31:14Z
dc.date.available 2015-11-23T12:31:14Z
dc.date.issued 2014 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Richardson, E. T., Morrow, C. D., Kalil, D. B., Bekker, L. G., & Wood, R. (2013). Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission. PloS one, 9(5), e96334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096334 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15310
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Despite an improvement in the overall TB cure rate from 40-74% between 1995 and 2011, TB incidence in South Africa continues to increase. The epidemic is notably disquieting in schools because the vulnerable population is compelled to be present. Older learners (age 15-19) are at particular risk given a smear-positive rate of 427 per 100,000 per year and the significant amount of time they spend indoors. High schools are therefore important locations for potential TB infection and thus prevention efforts. Methods and FINDINGS: Using portable carbon dioxide monitors, we measured CO 2 in classrooms under non-steady state conditions. The threshold for tuberculosis transmission was estimated using a carbon dioxide-based risk equation. We determined a critical rebreathed fraction of carbon dioxide ( ) of 1·6%, which correlates with an indoor CO 2 concentration of 1000 ppm. These values correspond with a ventilation rate of 8·6 l/s per person or 12 air exchanges per hour (ACH) for standard classrooms of 180 m 3 . CONCLUSIONS: Given the high smear positive rate of high-school adolescents in South Africa, the proposal to achieve CO 2 levels of 1000ppm through natural ventilation (in the amount 12 ACH) will not only help achieve WHO guidelines for providing children with healthy indoor environments, it will also provide a low-cost intervention for helping control the TB epidemic in areas of high prevalence. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Carbon dioxide en_ZA
dc.subject.other Tuberculosis en_ZA
dc.subject.other Schools en_ZA
dc.subject.other South Africa en_ZA
dc.subject.other Tuberculosis drug discovery en_ZA
dc.subject.other Measurement equipment en_ZA
dc.subject.other Environmental health en_ZA
dc.subject.other HIV epidemiology en_ZA
dc.title Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2014 Richardson et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Richardson, E. T., Morrow, C. D., Kalil, D. B., Bekker, L., & Wood, R. (2014). Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission. <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15310 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Richardson, Eugene T, Carl D Morrow, Darryl B Kalil, Linda-Gail Bekker, and Robin Wood "Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission." <i>PLoS One</i> (2014) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15310 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Richardson ET, Morrow CD, Kalil DB, Bekker L, Wood R. Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission. PLoS One. 2014; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15310. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Richardson, Eugene T AU - Morrow, Carl D AU - Kalil, Darryl B AU - Bekker, Linda-Gail AU - Wood, Robin AB - BACKGROUND: Despite an improvement in the overall TB cure rate from 40-74% between 1995 and 2011, TB incidence in South Africa continues to increase. The epidemic is notably disquieting in schools because the vulnerable population is compelled to be present. Older learners (age 15-19) are at particular risk given a smear-positive rate of 427 per 100,000 per year and the significant amount of time they spend indoors. High schools are therefore important locations for potential TB infection and thus prevention efforts. Methods and FINDINGS: Using portable carbon dioxide monitors, we measured CO 2 in classrooms under non-steady state conditions. The threshold for tuberculosis transmission was estimated using a carbon dioxide-based risk equation. We determined a critical rebreathed fraction of carbon dioxide ( ) of 1·6%, which correlates with an indoor CO 2 concentration of 1000 ppm. These values correspond with a ventilation rate of 8·6 l/s per person or 12 air exchanges per hour (ACH) for standard classrooms of 180 m 3 . CONCLUSIONS: Given the high smear positive rate of high-school adolescents in South Africa, the proposal to achieve CO 2 levels of 1000ppm through natural ventilation (in the amount 12 ACH) will not only help achieve WHO guidelines for providing children with healthy indoor environments, it will also provide a low-cost intervention for helping control the TB epidemic in areas of high prevalence. DA - 2014 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0096334 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2014 T1 - Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission TI - Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15310 ER - en_ZA


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.