Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission

 

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dc.contributor.author Wood, Robin en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Morrow, Carl en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Ginsberg, Samuel en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Piccoli, Elizabeth en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Kalil, Darryl en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Sassi, Angelina en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Walensky, Rochelle P en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Andrews, Jason R en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-23T12:31:10Z
dc.date.available 2015-11-23T12:31:10Z
dc.date.issued 2014 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Wood, R., Morrow, C., Ginsberg, S., Piccoli, E., Kalil, D., Sassi, A., ... & Andrews, J. R. (2013). Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission. PloS one, 9(9), e106622. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106622 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15307
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106622
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is endemic in Cape Town, South Africa where a majority of the population become tuberculosis infected before adulthood. While social contact patterns impacting tuberculosis and other respiratory disease spread have been studied, the environmental determinants driving airborne transmission have not been quantified. METHODS: Indoor carbon dioxide levels above outdoor levels reflect the balance of exhaled breath by room occupants and ventilation. We developed a portable monitor to continuously sample carbon dioxide levels, which were combined with social contact diary records to estimate daily rebreathed litres. A pilot study established the practicality of monitor use up to 48-hours. We then estimated the daily volumes of air rebreathed by adolescents living in a crowded township. RESULTS: One hundred eight daily records were obtained from 63 adolescents aged between 12- and 20-years. Forty-five lived in wooden shacks and 18 in brick-built homes with a median household of 4 members (range 2-9). Mean daily volume of rebreathed air was 120.6 (standard error: 8.0) litres/day, with location contributions from household (48%), school (44%), visited households (4%), transport (0.5%) and other locations (3.4%). Independent predictors of daily rebreathed volumes included household type (p = 0.002), number of household occupants (p = 0.021), number of sleeping space occupants (p = 0.022) and winter season (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the practical measurement of carbon dioxide levels to which individuals are exposed in a sequence of non-steady state indoor environments. A novel metric of rebreathed air volume reflects social and environmental factors associated with airborne infection and can identify locations with high transmission potential. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Carbon dioxide en_ZA
dc.subject.other Tuberculosis en_ZA
dc.subject.other Adolescents en_ZA
dc.subject.other Respiratory infections en_ZA
dc.subject.other Infectious disease epidemiology en_ZA
dc.subject.other Pilot studies en_ZA
dc.subject.other Mycobacterium tuberculosis en_ZA
dc.subject.other Global positioning system en_ZA
dc.title Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2014 Wood et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image
dc.identifier.apacitation Wood, R., Morrow, C., Ginsberg, S., Piccoli, E., Kalil, D., Sassi, A., ... Andrews, J. R. (2014). Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission. <i>PLoS One</i>, http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15307 en_ZA
dc.identifier.chicagocitation Wood, Robin, Carl Morrow, Samuel Ginsberg, Elizabeth Piccoli, Darryl Kalil, Angelina Sassi, Rochelle P Walensky, and Jason R Andrews "Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission." <i>PLoS One</i> (2014) http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15307 en_ZA
dc.identifier.vancouvercitation Wood R, Morrow C, Ginsberg S, Piccoli E, Kalil D, Sassi A, et al. Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission. PLoS One. 2014; http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15307. en_ZA
dc.identifier.ris TY - Journal Article AU - Wood, Robin AU - Morrow, Carl AU - Ginsberg, Samuel AU - Piccoli, Elizabeth AU - Kalil, Darryl AU - Sassi, Angelina AU - Walensky, Rochelle P AU - Andrews, Jason R AB - BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is endemic in Cape Town, South Africa where a majority of the population become tuberculosis infected before adulthood. While social contact patterns impacting tuberculosis and other respiratory disease spread have been studied, the environmental determinants driving airborne transmission have not been quantified. METHODS: Indoor carbon dioxide levels above outdoor levels reflect the balance of exhaled breath by room occupants and ventilation. We developed a portable monitor to continuously sample carbon dioxide levels, which were combined with social contact diary records to estimate daily rebreathed litres. A pilot study established the practicality of monitor use up to 48-hours. We then estimated the daily volumes of air rebreathed by adolescents living in a crowded township. RESULTS: One hundred eight daily records were obtained from 63 adolescents aged between 12- and 20-years. Forty-five lived in wooden shacks and 18 in brick-built homes with a median household of 4 members (range 2-9). Mean daily volume of rebreathed air was 120.6 (standard error: 8.0) litres/day, with location contributions from household (48%), school (44%), visited households (4%), transport (0.5%) and other locations (3.4%). Independent predictors of daily rebreathed volumes included household type (p = 0.002), number of household occupants (p = 0.021), number of sleeping space occupants (p = 0.022) and winter season (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the practical measurement of carbon dioxide levels to which individuals are exposed in a sequence of non-steady state indoor environments. A novel metric of rebreathed air volume reflects social and environmental factors associated with airborne infection and can identify locations with high transmission potential. DA - 2014 DB - OpenUCT DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0106622 DP - University of Cape Town J1 - PLoS One LK - https://open.uct.ac.za PB - University of Cape Town PY - 2014 T1 - Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission TI - Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission UR - http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15307 ER - en_ZA


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.