Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

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dc.contributor.author Naude, Celeste E en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Schoonees, Anel en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Senekal, Marjanne en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Young, Taryn en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Garner, Paul en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Volmink, Jimmy en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-23T12:22:32Z
dc.date.available 2015-11-23T12:22:32Z
dc.date.issued 2014 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Naude, C. E., Schoonees, A., Senekal, M., Young, T., Garner, P., & Volmink, J. (2013). Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(7), e100652. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100652 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/15268
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100652
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Some popular weight loss diets restricting carbohydrates (CHO) claim to be more effective, and have additional health benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease compared to balanced weight loss diets. Methods and FINDINGS: We compared the effects of low CHO and isoenergetic balanced weight loss diets in overweight and obese adults assessed in randomised controlled trials (minimum follow-up of 12 weeks), and summarised the effects on weight, as well as cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Dietary criteria were derived from existing macronutrient recommendations. We searched Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL (19 March 2014). Analysis was stratified by outcomes at 3-6 months and 1-2 years, and participants with diabetes were analysed separately. We evaluated dietary adherence and used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We calculated mean differences (MD) and performed random-effects meta-analysis. Nineteen trials were included (n = 3209); 3 had adequate allocation concealment. In non-diabetic participants, our analysis showed little or no difference in mean weight loss in the two groups at 3-6 months (MD 0.74 kg, 95%CI −1.49 to 0.01 kg; I 2  = 53%; n = 1745, 14 trials; moderate quality evidence) and 1-2 years (MD 0.48 kg, 95%CI −1.44 kg to 0.49 kg; I 2  = 12%; n = 1025; 7 trials, moderate quality evidence). Furthermore, little or no difference was detected at 3-6 months and 1-2 years for blood pressure, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose (>914 participants). In diabetic participants, findings showed a similar pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Trials show weight loss in the short-term irrespective of whether the diet is low CHO or balanced. There is probably little or no difference in weight loss and changes in cardiovascular risk factors up to two years of follow-up when overweight and obese adults, with or without type 2 diabetes, are randomised to low CHO diets and isoenergetic balanced weight loss diets. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Diet and type 2 diabetes en_ZA
dc.subject.other Diet en_ZA
dc.subject.other Obesity en_ZA
dc.subject.other Weight loss en_ZA
dc.subject.other Carbohydrates en_ZA
dc.subject.other Cholesterol en_ZA
dc.subject.other Type 2 diabetes en_ZA
dc.subject.other Randomized controlled trials en_ZA
dc.title Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2014 Naude et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Division of Human Nutrition en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.