Pesticide retailers’ knowledge and handling practices in selected towns of Tanzania

 

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dc.contributor.author Lekei, Elikana E
dc.contributor.author Ngowi, Aiwerasia V
dc.contributor.author London, Leslie
dc.date.accessioned 2015-07-30T03:51:55Z
dc.date.available 2015-07-30T03:51:55Z
dc.date.issued 2014-10-07
dc.identifier.citation Lekei, E. E., Ngowi, A. V., & London, L. (2014). Pesticide retailers’ knowledge and handling practices in selected towns of Tanzania. Environmental health, 13(1), 79.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/13581
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-13-79
dc.description.abstract Abstract Background Approximately 300 pesticide retailers are currently registered in Tanzania. Inadequate knowledge and unsafe handling practices among retailers may contribute to human pesticide exposure and environmental contamination. This study investigated pesticide retailers’ qualifications, work experience, safety practices and the products distributed so as to identify opportunities for preventing Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP). Methodology In 2005, employees of pesticide retail firms in six Tanzanian towns were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire and physical inspection of premises. In addition, information on products distributed in 2004 and 2005 was collected from Arusha and Arumeru firms to assess potential risk posed for end-users. Results More than half of the participating firms (58.6%) were not registered. Most agents on sale in Arusha and Arumeru were hazardous products including WHO Class I and II products (61.7%) and the mean number of cholinesterase inhibiting agents was 5.8 (range 2–8). Major deficiencies found included semi-trained staff (52%), lack of first-aid kits (38.6%), repacking and decanting of pesticides into smaller unlabelled containers (25.3%), lack of fire-fighting equipment (22.6%) and distribution of unregistered products (9.3%). Compared to unregistered companies, those companies that were registered were more likely to report practicing safe container disposal (40% versus 19%; p = 0.06) and to have an absence of leaking containers (36% versus 15%; p = 0.04). Conclusion Pesticide distribution in Tanzania was accompanied by many unsafe practices that may contribute to the burden from APP, not only affecting the distributors but also farmers who buy and use these products. Market pressures appear to be encouraging decanting of pesticides to enable retailers to make profits. Registration of firms appears to be associated with safer practices. Comprehensive interventions to strengthen enforcement mechanisms by increasing the number of pesticide inspectors, ensuring adequate financial support for enforcement activities and providing training opportunities for pesticide retailers and the end users are strongly recommended.
dc.rights This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 *
dc.source Environmental Health en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://www.ehjournal.net
dc.subject.other Public Health en_ZA
dc.title Pesticide retailers’ knowledge and handling practices in selected towns of Tanzania
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.date.updated 2015-01-15T17:57:34Z
dc.language.rfc3066 en
dc.rights.holder Lekei et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Public Health and Family Medicine en_ZA
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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License