Browsing by Subject "Membrane proteins"
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- ItemOpen AccessCharacterizing the syphilis-causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum proteome using complementary mass spectrometry(Public Library of Science, 2016) Osbak, Kara K; Houston, Simon; Lithgow, Karen V; Meehan, Conor J; Strouhal, Michal; Šmajs, David; Cameron, Caroline E; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Kenyon, Chris R; Van Raemdonck, Geert AAuthor Summary: Syphilis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The bacterium causing syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum , has evolved into a highly distinctive organism that is only able survive (and be propagated) in mammals. In humans it can evade the immune system for decades with devastating consequences. Much remains to be learned about how it accomplishes this. Only a minority of its predicted proteins have been detected experimentally thus far. We aimed to more comprehensively characterize the proteins of this organism. Since it cannot be cultured in vitro , we cultured T . pallidum in rabbits and analyzed extracted proteins using different mass spectrometry methods, a manner of detecting proteins with high accuracy. In total, we detected more than half of the predicted number of proteins that could be expressed by this bacterium (N = 557). For approximately half of the proteins, we succeeded in characterizing their predicted cellular location using an array of bioinformatic tools and catalogued their function. This is the most comprehensive analysis of the T . pallidum proteome to date. This study lays the groundwork for other protein investigations of this unique organism.
- ItemOpen AccessConstitutively active CCR5 chemokine receptors differ in mediating HIV envelope-dependent fusion(Public Library of Science, 2013) de Voux, Alex; Chan, Mei-Chi; Folefoc, Asongna T; Madziva, Michael T; Flanagan, Colleen AThe CCR5 chemokine receptor is a rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor that mediates the effects of pro-inflammatory β-chemokines. CCR5 is also the major co-receptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into human cells. G protein-coupled receptors exist in ensembles of active and inactive conformations. Active receptor conformations can be stabilized by mutations. Although binding of the HIV envelope protein to CCR5 stimulates cellular signaling, the CCR5 conformation that induces fusion of the viral membrane with cellular membranes is not known. We mutated conserved amino acids to generate constitutively active CCR5 receptors, which are stabilized in active conformations, and tested the ability of constitutively active CCR5 receptors to mediate HIV envelope-directed membrane fusion. Mutation of the Asp 3.49(125) and Arg 6.32(225) residues of CCR5 did not cause constitutive activity, but Lys or Pro substitutions for Thr 2.56(82) , in the TxP motif, caused high basal inositol phosphate signaling. Signaling did not increase in response to MIP-1β, suggesting that the Thr 2.56(82) mutants were fully stabilized in active conformations. The Thr 2.56(82) Lys mutation severely decreased cell surface CCR5 expression. Combining the Thr 2.56(82) Lys mutation with an Arg 6.32(225) Gln mutation partially reversed the decrease in expression. Mutants with Thr 2.56(82) Lys substitutions were poor mediators of HIV envelope-directed membrane fusion, but mutants with the Thr 2.65(82) Pro substitution exhibited full co-receptor function. Our results suggest that the Thr 2.65(82) Lys and Thr 2.65(82) Pro mutations stabilize distinct constitutively active CCR5 conformations. Lys in position 2.65(82) stabilizes activated receptor conformations that appear to be constitutively internalized and do not induce envelope-dependent membrane fusion, whereas Pro stabilizes activated conformations that are not constitutively internalized and fully mediate envelope-directed membrane fusion.
- ItemOpen AccessFilamin a binds to CCR2B and regulates its internalization(Public Library of Science, 2010) Minsaas, Laura; Planagumà, Jesús; Madziva, Michael; Krakstad, Beate F; Masià-Balagué, Míriam; Katz, Arieh A; Aragay, Anna MThe chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2B (CCR2B) is one of the two isoforms of the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), the major chemoattractant for monocytes, involved in an array of chronic inflammatory diseases. Employing the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified the actin-binding protein filamin A (FLNa) as a protein that associates with the carboxyl-terminal tail of CCR2B. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pull down assays demonstrated that FLNa binds constitutively to CCR2B. The colocalization of endogenous CCR2B and filamin A was detected at the surface and in internalized vesicles of THP-1 cells. In addition, CCR2B and FLNa were colocalized in lamellipodia structures of CCR2B-expressing A7 cells. Expression of the receptor in filamin-deficient M2 cells together with siRNA experiments knocking down FLNa in HEK293 cells, demonstrated that lack of FLNa delays the internalization of the receptor. Furthermore, depletion of FLNa in THP-1 monocytes by RNA interference reduced the migration of cells in response to MCP-1. Therefore, FLNa emerges as an important protein for controlling the internalization and spatial localization of the CCR2B receptor in different dynamic membrane structures.
- ItemOpen AccessIdentification of a collagen type I adhesin of Bacteroides fragilis(Public Library of Science, 2014) Galvão, Bruna P G V; Weber, Brandon W; Rafudeen, Mohamed S; Ferreira, Eliane O; Patrick, Sheila; Abratt, Valerie RBacteroides fragilis is an opportunistic pathogen which can cause life threatening infections in humans and animals. The ability to adhere to components of the extracellular matrix, including collagen, is related to bacterial host colonisation. Collagen Far Western analysis of the B. fragilis outer membrane protein (OMP) fraction revealed the presence two collagen adhesin bands of ∼31 and ∼34 kDa. The collagen adhesins in the OMP fraction were separated and isolated by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and also purified by collagen affinity chromatography. The collagen binding proteins isolated by both these independent methods were subjected to tandem mass spectroscopy for peptide identification and matched to a single hypothetical protein encoded by B. fragilis NCTC 9343 (BF0586), conserved in YCH46 (BF0662) and 638R (BF0633) and which is designated in this study as cbp1 (collagen binding protein). Functionality of the protein was confirmed by targeted insertional mutagenesis of the cbp1 gene in B. fragilis GSH18 which resulted in the specific loss of both the ∼31 kDa and the ∼34 kDa adhesin bands. Purified his-tagged Cbp1, expressed in a B. fragilis wild-type and a glycosylation deficient mutant, confirmed that the cbp1 gene encoded the observed collagen adhesin, and showed that the 34 kDa band represents a glycosylated version of the ∼31 kDa protein. Glycosylation did not appear to be required for binding collagen. This study is the first to report the presence of collagen type I adhesin proteins in B. fragilis and to functionally identify a gene encoding a collagen binding protein.
- ItemOpen AccessA novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (S333W) impairs N-domain enzymatic cleavage of the anti-fibrotic peptide, AcSDKP(Public Library of Science, 2014) Danilov, Sergei M; Wade, Michael S; Schwager, Sylva L; Douglas, Ross G; Nesterovitch, Andrew B; Popova, Isolda A; Hogarth, Kyle D; Bhardwaj, Nakul; Schwartz, David E; Sturrock, Edward D; Garcia, Joe G NBACKGROUND: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) has two functional N- and C-domain active centers that display differences in the metabolism of biologically-active peptides including the hemoregulatory tetrapeptide, Ac-SDKP, hydrolysed preferentially by the N domain active center. Elevated Ac-SDKP concentrations are associated with reduced tissue fibrosis. RESULTS: We identified a patient of African descent exhibiting unusual blood ACE kinetics with reduced relative hydrolysis of two synthetic ACE substrates (ZPHL/HHL ratio) suggestive of the ACE N domain center inactivation. Inhibition of blood ACE activity by anti-catalytic mAbs and ACE inhibitors and conformational fingerprint of blood ACE suggested overall conformational changes in the ACE molecule and sequencing identified Ser333Trp substitution in the N domain of ACE. In silico analysis demonstrated S333W localized in the S 1 pocket of the active site of the N domain with the bulky Trp adversely affecting binding of ACE substrates due to steric hindrance. Expression of mutant ACE (S333W) in CHO cells confirmed altered kinetic properties of mutant ACE and conformational changes in the N domain. Further, the S333W mutant displayed decreased ability (5-fold) to cleave the physiological substrate AcSDKP compared to wild-type ACE. Conclusions and Significance A novel Ser333Trp ACE mutation results in dramatic changes in ACE kinetic properties and lowered clearance of Ac-SDKP. Individuals with this mutation (likely with significantly increased levels of the hemoregulatory tetrapeptide in blood and tissues), may confer protection against fibrosis.
- ItemOpen AccessPredicting and analyzing interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its human host(Public Library of Science, 2013) Rapanoel, Holifidy A; Mazandu, Gaston K; Mulder, Nicola JThe outcome of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends greatly on how the host responds to the bacteria and how the bacteria manipulates the host, which is facilitated by protein-protein interactions. Thus, to understand this process, there is a need for elucidating protein interactions between human and Mtb, which may enable us to characterize specific molecular mechanisms allowing the bacteria to persist and survive under different environmental conditions. In this work, we used the interologs method based on experimentally verified intra-species and inter-species interactions to predict human-Mtb functional interactions. These interactions were further filtered using known human-Mtb interactions and genes that are differentially expressed during infection, producing 190 interactions. Further analysis of the subcellular location of proteins involved in these human-Mtb interactions confirms feasibility of these interactions. We also conducted functional analysis of human and Mtb proteins involved in these interactions, checking whether these proteins play a role in infection and/or disease, and enriching Mtb proteins in a previously predicted list of drug targets. We found that the biological processes of the human interacting proteins suggested their involvement in apoptosis and production of nitric oxide, whereas those of the Mtb interacting proteins were relevant to the intracellular environment of Mtb in the host. Mapping these proteins onto KEGG pathways highlighted proteins belonging to the tuberculosis pathway and also suggested that Mtb proteins might use the host to acquire nutrients, which is in agreement with the intracellular lifestyle of Mtb. This indicates that these interactions can shed light on the interplay between Mtb and its human host and thus, contribute to the process of designing novel drugs with new biological mechanisms of action.