Browsing by Subject "Health Care"
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- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the user-free policy for health care in Kenya : is the effort worth it?(1999) Mwangi, PK; Thomas, StephenThis study analyses the user fee policy for health care in Kenya that was introduced to try and recoup some of the costs incurred in providing care as well as rationalise the use of resources. The study aims to generate policy-related findings that are crucial to MOH policy makers in their attempt to provide quality and affordable care. In particular, factors associated with proper function or malfunction of the user fee policy are discussed. The study focussed on four hospitals located in Central province of Kenya. This province was purposefully chosen for its convenience and its high potential for cost recovery. Equity in health care consumption, efficiency, sustainability and perceived quality of care are reviewed. Both primary and secondary data were used. Quantitative and qualitative data were solicited by way of administering questionnaires. Respondents were divided into two categories: providers (staff) and consumers (patients) of health care. The latter were subdivided into inpatients and outpatients. Each of these categories had a specific questionnaire. Further, an attempt is made to estimate net revenue generated in the year 1997/98 by the facilities under study. Costs associated with fee collection were estimated on monthly basis and then projected for the whole year. There are important findings from the study; though patients are charged higher fees at hospitals than at primary levels in order to bolster the referral system, many patients are bypassing the nearby primary care facilities. This study recommends that bypassing patients should be charged higher fees than referred ones.
- ItemMetadata onlyDeterminants of the choice of health care facility utilised by individuals in HIV/AIDS-affected households in the Free State province of South Africa(CSSR and SALDRU, 2015-05-28) Visser, Martine; Booysen, Frikkie
- ItemOpen AccessDoes the distribution of health care benefits in Kenya meet the principles of universal coverage?(BioMed Central Ltd, 2012) Chuma, Jane; Maina, Thomas; Ataguba, JohnBACKGROUND:The 58th World Health Assembly called for all health systems to move towards universal coverage where everyone has access to key promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health interventions at an affordable cost. Universal coverage involves ensuring that health care benefits are distributed on the basis of need for care and not on ability to pay. The distribution of health care benefits is therefore an important policy question, which health systems should address. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of health care benefits in the Kenyan health system, compare changes over two time periods and demonstrate the extent to which the distribution meets the principles of universal coverage. METHODS: Two nationally representative cross-sectional households surveys conducted in 2003 and 2007 were the main sources of data. A comprehensive analysis of the entire health system is conducted including the public sector, private-not-for-profit and private-for-profit sectors. Standard benefit incidence analysis techniques were applied and adopted to allow application to private sector services. RESULTS: The three sectors recorded similar levels of pro-rich distribution in 2003, but in 2007, the private-not-for-profit sector was pro-poor, public sector benefits showed an equal distribution, while the private-for-profit sector remained pro-rich. Larger pro-rich disparities were recorded for inpatient compared to outpatient benefits at the hospital level, but primary health care services were pro-poor. Benefits were distributed on the basis of ability to pay and not on need for care. CONCLUSIONS: The principles of universal coverage require that all should benefit from health care according to need. The Kenyan health sector is clearly inequitable and benefits are not distributed on the basis of need. Deliberate efforts should be directed to restructuring the Kenyan health system to address access barriers and ensure that all Kenyans benefit from health care when they need it.
- ItemOpen Access'Don't send your sick here to be treated, our own people need it more': immigrants' access to health care in South Africa(2015) Alfaro-Velcamp, Theresa; Calland, RichardThis minor dissertation argues that there is more than a disjuncture between theory and practices, particularly for refugees and migrants and doctors in South Africa. The core idea of the Bill of Rights is that socio-economic rights are for everyone. Yet, its application suggests everyone means all citizens in the post-apartheid period, rather than all residents in South Africa. In the international domain, the human rights discourse calls on states to recognise responsibility extending to all peoples residing in a sovereign nation- state; but progressive realisation can hamper this aspiration. By employing progressive realisation within South African law, the idea that the state pays for what it can and makes future efforts to change, socio-economic rights for everyone currently cannot be achieved. This dissertation examines how Constitutional Court rulings on access to healthcare and relevant statutes have not been uniformly granted to everyone causing a disjuncture between law and practice.
- ItemOpen AccessEnduring "lateness": biomedicalisation and the unfolding of reproductive life, sociality, and antenatal care(2016) Ferreira, Nicole; Ross, Fiona CThe dissertation examines how pregnant women seeking antenatal care at a state facility in the Southern Peninsula of Cape Town conceptualise and experience their pregnancies in relation to the biomedical model that informs state practices of care. I specifically explore the experiences that contribute to the state's definition of 'late' presentation at antenatal clinics (i.e. after the first trimester). The antenatal care model advises that pregnant women report "early", at 12 weeks, and have regular follow up visits up until 40 week period, yet recent public health research showed that women present "late" to the antenatal clinics, with only 40.2% of first antenatal visits occurring in the first trimester in South Africa. The women who were a part of the research were chosen in the clinic space, in waiting rooms, booking rooms and while waiting for ultrasounds. The women were selected based on age (17 upwards), and gestational age at first antenatal booking. I examine the ways biomedicine frames temporality, and the way that health policy enacts this through antenatal care. I contest the brackets of 'lateness' and biomedicalisation of pregnancy, and the state's version of the female reproductive body as I describe the unfolding experiences of a reproductive life, showing how pregnancy and health care seeking are enmeshed in social worlds. The discursive framings of antenatal attendance exhorts women to seek antennal care at 12 weeks gestation, to "be responsible" "good women" managing their sexual and reproductive lives with a mode surveillance that presumes a certain way of knowing and counting the body. I explore the other ways of experiencing, knowing, and counting, showing how pregnancy experiences and healthcare seeking behaviours are influenced by social, economic, political, and historical factors, and by the moral and religious values that shape daily life for women. My thesis is grounded in the growing literature on anthropology of reproduction and the biosocial. In doing so, I examine what it means to have and experience a reproductive body within the unfolding events of everyday life, where moments and 'quasievents' (such as structural inequalities, and the daily bouts of gang violence and domestic violence) become enmeshed, such that they influence temporality, differing perceptions of trust, distrust, risk and testing, and differing social values of testing. I further show how maternal kinship networks of support are valued, yet precarious as are intimate partnerships, which both influence experiences of care, neglect, abuse, punishment and shape antenatal attendance. In contesting temporal boundaries of biomedicine I show how women's bodily and relational experiences, their everyday lives and quasi-events within them are inseparable in shaping antenatal health seeking practices and how pregnancies are imagined.
- ItemOpen AccessTreatment guidelines and early loss from care for people living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study(2017) Katz, Ingrid T; Kaplan, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Leone, Dominick; Bangsberg, David R; Bekker, Linda‐Gail; Orrell, CatherineSouth Africa has undergone multiple expansions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility from an initial CD4+ threshold of ≤200 cells/μl to providing ART for all people living with HIV (PLWH) as of September 2016. We evaluated the association of programmatic changes in ART eligibility with loss from care, both prior to ART initiation and within the first 16 weeks of starting treatment, during a period of programmatic expansion to ART treatment at CD4+ ≤ 350 cells/μl.