Browsing by Faculty "Faculty of Humanities"
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- ItemOpen Access100 years old and still making history: The centenary of the Department of Historical Studies at the University of Cape Town(2004) Phillips, HowardObserving institutional birthdays is not something academic historians readily undertake nowadays – their training makes them habitually wary of the constructed nature of such events and of the self-preening which usually accompanies them. All too often such occasions become part of a celebration of an invented tradition of origins, in which founders’ days are ‘seized on with alacrity for displays of pageantry, where, with high-ranking officials ever present, the narrative inevitably extol[s] … supposed progress and virtues’.1 However, commemorating a centenary is perhaps in a different category, for doing so has long roots in Western culture, dating back to the Biblical Jubilee, the Roman Catholic Church’s first Holy Year in 1300 and the veneration of the decimal system by the European Enlightenment. This makes marking a centenary seem quite natural, so easing the discomfort of historians with such an occasion. Moreover, when, as in the case of the centenary of the foundation of the University of Cape Town’s (UCT) chair of history in 2003, the original event also signalled the inception of history as a university discipline in its own right in subSaharan Africa, the inducement to commemorate this step is difficult to resist. Added to this, 100 years is a meaningful timespan for reflecting on an institution, being long enough for a degree of historical perspective but short enough to permit the voices of some of the actors to be clearly heard too, perhaps once and – thanks to the tape recorder and video camera – forever. In a centenary year, therefore, both a microscope and telescope can be employed to good effect. It was with such ideas in mind that in 2002 UCT’s Department of Historical Studies contemplated its coming centenary and decided not to let it pass unnoticed.
- ItemOpen Access14 ways to remember Nzira gumi nena dzekuyeuka : exploring and preserving memories(2009) Matindike, Tashinga; Zaayman, CarineMy project is one of memorialisation, expressed as a creative process. A core theme throughout my work concerns the notions of absence and presence, as the project is founded on a personal loss and inspired by a desire to sustain the memories of my late brother. My investigation involves the exploration and preservation of the memories of my brother. The body of work manifests as the residue of my reflections on grief and memory that I have chosen to exhibit in a commemorative manner. In turn, my practice has functioned as a source of comfort in the course of my mourning.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 1985 school crisis in the Western Cape(1992) Nekhwevha, Fhulufhuwani Hastings; Molteno, Frank; Jubber, KenThe thesis is an exploratory and primarily empirical study with the objective to construct a detailed chronology of the events of the 1985 school crisis particularly in African schools in the Western Cape and to reflect on the relationship between the school crisis and the organic crisis in South Africa and the Western Cape in particular. The data for the thesis were derived from primary and secondary documentary sources and in-depth interview material. A total of 51 interviewees were selected principally on the basis of the specific role they played particularly within the Department of Education and Training institutions as well as in community, political, workers', parents', teachers' and student organisations during the 1985 school crisis in the Western cape. Interviews were open-ended with a semi-structured interview schedule which consisted of topical headings. The thesis's theoretical framework was informed by Gramsci's Marxism am the key concepts employed in the analysis included Gramsci's notions of hegemony and organic crisis as well as Freire's concept of conscientisation. Utilising Gramsci's Marxism, the historical transformations in economic, political and ideological spheres which affected the development of student struggles and the crisis in the Department of Education and Training schools in 1985 were examined. Chapter 1 deals with .the 'Total strategy' as a form of state "formative action" to overcome the general crisis. It also documents in chronological order the main events of the school boycotts and both political and economic struggles on a national level from 1953 to 1984 and early 1985 in order to provide a sound background for the 1985 school crisis in the Western Cape. Chapter 2 which is offered as an empirical contribution to sociology of education covers a series of complex events and processes which constituted the core of the 1985 school crisis in the Western Cape in a chronological order. In the conclusion, Gramsci's concepts of 'hegemony' and 'organic crisis' supplemented by Freire's notion of conscientisation were directly utilised to analyse the slogan 'People's education for people's power'. One crucial observation explicit in the thesis am expressed through verbatim interview extracts was that the school crisis could only be resolved when the apartheid capitalist system in its entirety has been abolished.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 2003 Cape Area Study (CAS 3): A User's Guide(2004) Seekings, Jeremy; Alexander, Karin; Jooste, Tracy; Matzner, IsaacThe Cape Area Study (CAS) comprises an ongoing series of surveys conducted in Cape Town.?The surveys have covered and will continue to cover a wide range of topics.?Over time, however, CAS will have a quality that is unique in South Africa (and perhaps Africa as a whole), in that there will be an accumulation of data on a focused social setting across a span of time, such that the value of the 'whole' is substantially greater than the 'sum of the parts'. CAS is modelled on the Detroit Area Study, conducted annually since 1951 by the University of Michigan.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 2010 Fifa world cup: Perceptions of its sports and development legacy potential(2010) Mills, Lucy Caroline; De Wet, JacquesSport mega-events are a contemporary phenomenon which embody and unify global processes in an increasingly globalised world. Whilst the sport industry has grown exponentially as a result of global market forces envisaging extensive economic opportunities, hosting a mega-event has also been economically attractive for cities and countries. In aiming to be globally competitive and world-class, mega-events derive from an economic-growth centred model of urban development, whereby benefits will 'trickle-down' to the poor and marginalised (Pillay and Bass, 2008). The 2010 FIFA World Cup typifies such an event as it encompasses historical, geopolitical, economic and socio-cultural processes that have intensified and been intensified by, globalisation. South Africa's bid for the 2010 FIFA World Cup however, has differed from other mega-event bids. Official World Cup discourses boast that the World Cup will produce lasting socio-economic impacts to South Africa and indeed the rest of Africa. FIFA and the South African government have labelled the 2010 World Cup an 'African World Cup' with promises of stimulating pan-African economic and sociocultural opportunities. There is significant emphasis on providing social benefits to underprivileged populations. One of the anticipated social legacies is the development of sport structures and increased participation of sport in disadvantaged areas where barriers to sport are most entrenched. The aim of the research project was to determine whether a sport and development legacy is in fact materialising in both South Africa and Zambia as a result of South Africa hosting the World Cup. I employed a qualitative research design and conducted 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews with representatives from a wide variety of sport and development related organisations in Cape Town and Lusaka. I regarded this cross-section of people as best positioned to provide evidence of a legacy. v Findings demonstrate that the official World Cup discourses generated by FIFA and the South African government pledging benefits continent-wide, have infiltrated everyday discourse of people in townships in Lusaka and Cape Town. There is however a discrepancy between this rhetoric and the reality. Respondents from smallscale, community-based sports structures rarely perceive themselves or their organisations to benefit from World Cup opportunities due to a lack of access to information and resources. Despite limited tangible gains or involvement, a sense of pride in South Africa, and indeed Africa, is evident. This alone is contributing to the support of the World Cup rather than visible positive changes in disadvantaged communities. In contrast to these organisations, representatives from larger, wealthier sport for development NGOs record increased funding and activities. This research has therefore exposed a dual system of sports delivery present in South Africa and Zambia. Whilst sport for development NGOs thrive, community sports structures struggle to the point of being near dysfunctional or even non-existent. Given the problematic history of donor-driven, Northern-based development programmes, we must be wary of perpetuating the marginalisation of local voices. This thesis suggests that pitfalls of globalisation at large are reproduced in globalised sport. It substantiates existing literature that doubts the potential of the World Cup to generate development among poorer populations.
- ItemOpen Access21st century tertiary design education in post-apartheid South Africa : a question of quality(2007) Leroux, Allen; Crawhall, Nigel TThe dissertation explores the question of; what drives excellence in tertiary design education in 21st Century post-Apartheid South Africa? Is it what the state does in terms of policy and regulation or is it what the higher educational providers do in terms of curriculum and methodology that creates excellence? In the first part the dissertation traces the development of higher education policy in South Africa following the political changes from Apartheid to Democracy after 1994. It explores the development of a regulatory framework for higher education provision in post-Apartheid South Africa, due to the disparate levels of quality higher education developed under the Apartheid system for different racial groups and also the proliferation of poor quality private higher education during the first decade of democracy. It follow s the view that while the state set the regulatory control for higher education a n d bench marked educational excellence against public institutions, the realisation that market demands for access to quality higher education would require private education provision to form part of the institutional mix was soon reached. In the second part of the dissertation a case study of a newly established private higher education provider is developed. Created within the new regulatory framework for higher education in South Africa, FEDISA (Future Excellence Design Institute of South Africa) of which this author is the academic director, endeavours to show that private providers of higher education can, when pursuing excellence, become viable partners to the stat e in education provision and may even surpass the state institutions, now burdened with massification, in terms of quality education provision. The study goes on to develop an understanding of how changes in the economic markets have created change demand within design. It then considers the four tenets on which FEDISA's programme for achieving excellence is based in order to comply academically with the highest quality of 21st Century design education. This is as much in answer to the requirements of the new regulatory framework as to the institution's own analysis of what the market now wants. These tenets include the concept of what a curriculum is, drawing on Stenhouse and Smith's views of the curriculum as 'a blueprint for action'. Next, the importance of integrating the component elements of the design curriculum by drawing parallels between the 'collection type and integrated curriculum' theory of Bernstein is considered. In the third instance, an analysis of 'Knowing, Acting and Being', after the curriculum theory of Barnett and Coates is developed through the addition of a liberal arts component to the design curriculum. Special focus is afforded the importance of 'Being' development of design students in 21st Century design education. Finally, Brookfield's notion of becoming a critically reflective practitioner and how the concept of critical reflection has found its place in the 21st Century design classroom through the use of the 'tools of critical reflection' is brought into focus. The dissertation concludes that while the shift in the design markets from craft through mass production to an understanding of ethical considerations in new millennium design dictates what kind of design professionals should now be educated and that this awareness may be achieved through the refocusing of inherently simple means inside the design classroom of the 21st Century, excellence in tertiary design education, while primarily based on what happens inside our design institutions, goes hand in hand with compliance to the demands of state regulation in order to ensure the viability of our tertiary institutions.
- ItemOpen Access4 Charakterstücke, Op. 3 for clarinet and piano(2013) Verhey, Th. H. HUCT has typeset the clarinet part, since IMSLP has only the piano part and the viola part. However, the title lists clarinet first, i.e. "for clarinet or viola", so it seems clarinet was the primary choice. The piano part is available on IMSLP. Romantic literature in the same vein as Schumann's and Gade's Fantasiestucke, and perhaps in between the two in terms of difficulty, i.e. easier than Schumann (particularly his second and third movements), but more difficult than Gade's.
- ItemOpen AccessA battle for access to the streets of a "World-Class African City": Assessing the challenges facing the City of Johannesburg in the management of street trading in the inner-city(University of Cape Town, 2020) Zulu, Nompumelelo; Cameron, RobertThe paper identifies the main challenges faced by the City of Johannesburg in the management of street trading in Johannesburg's inner-city. Street trading is very important as it constitutes a great proportion of the informal sector in South Africa, and it plays a great role in the alleviation of poverty and unemployment. Government acknowledges the significance of street trading but this does not translate into urban policy and practice. There is a need for government to be more supportive and developmental in the management of street trading in urban governance. The paper found that the 2013 Constitutional Court Judgement on Operation Clean Sweep has brought about a shift in the City of Johannesburg's approach and attitude towards street trading, however, key challenges remain. Firstly, the City of Johannesburg needs to establish a holistic, developmental and collaborative management model for street trading as the current one is fragmented and inconsistent. The mismanagement of street trading has left traders vulnerable to police harassment and corruption, and it has resulted in the "crime and grime" the City of Johannesburg so often blames street trading for. Secondly, the City of Johannesburg needs to balance its desire to attain world-class African city status with the needs of the poor and marginalized - economic development, urban renewal and investment should not take place at the expense of the poor. Thirdly, street traders need to be at the center of the management model, currently business and private interests are at the center of the model. Lastly, the City of Johannesburg needs to be more creative and lenient in accommodating the growing number of street traders in the inner-city. The City of Johannesburg needs to stop criminalizing street trading through the creation of scarcity. The findings of this paper have implications for urban management policy and practice. Research was conducted through interviews with the Department of Economic Development officials responsible for street trading; draft policy and government documents were used; and secondary sources were drawn upon.
- ItemOpen AccessA bibliotherapeutic investigation among standard 4 pupils with special reference to the criterion of self-esteem(1980) Van Wyk, Jerome Alexander; Kesting, J G; Kesting, J G
- ItemOpen AccessA bio-indicator assessment towards the rehabilitation of the Stiebeuel River, Franschhoek, South Africa(2019) Cameron, Kieran; Winter, KevinIncreased urbanization coupled with the effects of urban stream syndrome and urban informal settlements are degrading rivers and causing a decline in habitat integrity and the delivery of ecosystem services. There is a need to implement river restoration programmes to alleviate the negative impacts on stream ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the ability of a contaminated urban stream, draining Langrug, an informal settlement, to enrich the biodiversity of species and organisms, following a rehabilitation intervention. It was investigated how nature, in the form of biodiversity of diatoms and macro-invertebrates, were observed in the Stiebeuel River when a range of habitats were created and restored through the replanting of indigenous vegetation within the Stiebeuel River channel. The focus of the study is on understanding the value of different types of bio-assessment and water quality methodologies for informing the rehabilitation of a river system. It also illustrates how a combination of methods as opposed to a single method is able to inform the ecological integrity of habitat restoration.The results showed the current physical and biological condition of the Stiebeuel River to be heavily degraded, critically modified, with poor river health and an ecological category between D and E/F. The low DO levels and high EC levels are correlated to low SPI scores and high %PT scores, which infers that there is a significant amount of organic pollution and nutrients in the wastewater discharges from Langrug, informal settlement. The miniSASS scores link to the SPI scores, such that the low sensitivity and low SPI scores are attributed to the highly polluted water quality dictating the abundance of pollutant tolerance species. The inflow of highly polluted water from Langrug, informal settlement is responsible for driving the distribution of species in the Stiebeuel River. This highly contaminated water as a result restricted the success of the habitat intervention to enrich biological diversity and improve the ecological status of the Stiebeuel River. The results from the bio-assessment and water quality monitoring overlap and confirms the link between the three monitoring methods
- ItemOpen AccessA body in dissonance: young woemn naviagting mental health and living with depression in Cape Town(2021) Oosthuizen, Simone; Macdonald, HelenThis dissertation investigates the experiences of young womxn diagnosed and living with depression in Cape Town. The investigation focuses on the relationship between the young womxn and their bodies as they live with depression and move through depressive episodes. The ethnographic findings expand on the dissociative - depersonalization and derealizationsymptoms of depression. Secondly, the investigation focuses on problematizing the theoretical construct of the body. These young womxn experienced their bodies beyond subject/object, internal/external, body/mind dichotomies. The dissertation frames the ethnographic findings with a phenomenological lens. Additionally, the dissertation uses a sensory gaze to understand the young womxn's bodily experiences and experiences with depression.
- ItemOpen AccessA Caledonian college in Cape Town and beyond: An investigation into the foundation(s) of the South African university system(Stellenbosch University, 2003) Phillips, HowardAdopting a historical approach, this article traces the origins of key features of the South African university system, namely the general nature of its undergraduate degrees, its heavy reliance on lectures to convey information and its extensive use of examinations to assess levels of student achievement. This historical investigation finds the roots of these features in the unreformed Scottish university system which was enthusiastically embraced by South Africa's first two teaching universities, the University of Cape Town (UCT) and Stellenbosch, in 1918, and which then was adopted by those universities which were set up in their image during the next 70 years. The article suggests that any attempt to reform the country's university system today must take account of the historical circumstances which produced it originally.
- ItemOpen AccessA Capability Approach to Examining the Effects of Actual and Anticipated Fear of Crime: Experiences and Perceptions of Black Female Youth in the Cape Flats(2020) Beiser, Sarina; Kubeka, AlvinaThe purpose of this study was to examine how the fear of crime affects the capabilities, perceptions and experiences of black female youth, living in the Cape Flats, Cape Town. Qualitative semi structured interviews were conducted with 18 black female participants between the ages of 18 to 30. This study used Garofalo's model of fear of crime and Amartya Sen's capability approach as theoretical frameworks. With the help of these two frameworks, the researcher sought to gauge what influence the fear of crime can have on people's lives and how crime affects young black females living in communities with high crime rates. It also showed how their life choices and opportunities are influenced by living in unsafe communities. The major challenges and problems highlighted by the participants include: Constant trauma of their daily life (leaving their houses, random shootings, unsafe public transport), mental health issues (losing friends and relatives), lack of proper police service (lack of police presence, incompetence of police, corruption), fear for family or friends, lack of trust and support systems (broken families, loss of trust, no role models, lack of social capital), lack of infrastructure (such as safe hospitals or educational challenges), the effects of gangsterism (gangs and drug wars, effects of drugs, families' or friend's involvement in gangsterism) and the lack of opportunities such as unemployment. This study showed how the peoples' capabilities have been affected by the above-mentioned issues and how the fear of crime affected their daily lives. This study also made recommendations for policy makers and social institutions on what can be done to reduce crime rates and make communities with high crime rates safer
- ItemOpen AccessA capability approach to examining the experiences and perceptions of Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) among homeless women in Cape Town(2021) Mhlongo, Ayanda; Kubeka, KhosiHomeless women face many challenges. They lack adequate housing and financial support and are confronted with the daunting challenge of securing sanitary products when menstruating (Parrillo and Feller, 2017). Menstruation is a crucial part of women's sexual and reproductive health (Reams, 2001). It is a significant biological experience that signifies a woman's transition from childhood to womanhood (Reams, 2001). For homeless women, purchasing menstrual products is an unreasonable financial burden (BRAWS, 2018). Homeless women end up using items such as rags, old socks, tissue paper, paper towels, torn pieces of clothing, or diapers to satisfy their menstrual needs (Mason et al., 2013). Often, homeless women go without menstrual protection altogether (Mason et al., 2013). This lack results in period poverty. Period poverty refers to a lack of sanitary products, menstrual hygiene education, toilets, hand-washing facilities, and/or waste management (Sanchez and Rodriguez, 2019). Period poverty manifests in the absence of Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM). MHM is a term used to refer to menstruating females having absorbents to absorb or collect blood that can be changed in privacy as many times as required, having soap and water to wash the body, and having facilities to dispose the used menstrual management materials (Sommer and Sahin, 2013). The purpose of the research study was to qualitatively explore the experiences and perceptions of period poverty among homeless women in Cape Town (South Africa) using the capability approach. As a result, the study was guided by a qualitative research design. Nonprobability sampling was used in recruiting participants. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 homeless women who experienced period poverty and received assistance from two organisations in Cape Town. The findings revealed that homeless women experience period poverty due to a lack of sanitary products and poor MHM. One of key challenges faced by the participants was that they do not have access to an adequate supply of water when having their period. Participants would then make use of dam, water under the bridge, public toilets or make use of a bucket in order keep clean during their period. This affected the confidence of the participants, making them feel inadequate. As a result, they developed unhealthy behaviours to survive the harsh realities of being homeless. This made them vulnerable to different forms of violence and affected their perception of the opportunities they believed they had access to. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that addressing period poverty amongst homeless women requires multifaceted policies and responses. Furthermore, there needs to be intense support from all stakeholders so that the issue of period poverty amongst homeless women is addressed as a wider public-health initiative. The financial burden of sanitary products should be eliminated across the globe. Essentially, free menstrual products should be made available to all menstruating individuals, including homeless women.
- ItemOpen AccessA Capability Approach to Understanding the Intersections between Language, Educational Opportunities, and Identity in South Africa: A Xhosa Speaking Youth Perspective(2021) Gonthier, Oceane; Kubeka, KhosiThe education system is a source of language discrimination and exclusion for many young people in South Africa. In South Africa, African languages are spoken by more than 70% of the population, while the colonial languages English and Afrikaans represent less than 25%. However, most South African schools use English or Afrikaans as the main language of instruction. Learners' transitioning to using and learning in a colonial language, and the role languages plays in youth education and development are the root cause of many challenges, including poor academic performance, unequal access to opportunity, social exclusion, and challenging identity formation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the intersection between language, educational opportunities, and identity from an isiXhosa speaking youth perspective in Cape Town, Western Cape. In depth individual interviews were conducted with 12 black African Xhosa youth, between the ages of 18 and 29. The researcher sought to examine the effects of the language challenges faced by isiXhosa speaking youth during their education journey and to gauge the perspective of isiXhosa speaking youth regarding the role of language in their academic performance, opportunities, and social identity. The researcher adopted the following three concepts as a framework for analysis: Sen's capability approach (1999), social identity theory by Tajfel and Turner (1979), and Soudien's work on language in post-apartheid education (2012). This study was important in order The findings revealed that participants faced various challenges in relation to language use in education, specifically transitioning to English as the main medium of instruction. The participants' experiences differed depending on the age at which they transitioned to using English in the education system, but the outcomes of this transition were similar. Their academic performance was negatively impacted by needing to learn in a different language. They had unequal opportunities throughout their education compared with native English speakers, putting them at higher risk of social exclusion and impacting negatively their access to higher education and employment. The participants' advocated for the need to decolonise education, specifically in regard to perceptions and use of languages, because of the prejudices and judgments based on their ability to speak English rather than their actual skills and capabilities. Participants tended to compare languages and look down on isiXhosa, then facing identity crises when returning to their Xhosa families. They had to navigate multiple identities depending on the language and context in which they found themselves. This study recommended reducing inequities by implementing inclusive language policies and measures to accommodate learners with non-colonial first languages, provide support through their transition to a new language, and not weighting incorrect English against them in non-English class. The recommendations also included the need to adapt national exams and grading systems to ensure all learners' have the opportunity to perform to their best ability. The government must also increase its investment in South African languages to promote their use in professional and public spaces. Finally, institutions must be encouraged to use multiple languages in schools, universities, and workplaces.
- ItemOpen AccessA case study of digital readiness and technology adoption at a theological college in Cape Town, South Africa(2022) Majackie, Collin A; Shongwe, MzwandileTechnological innovations are rapidly transforming the way Higher Educational Institutions are delivering their core mission of teaching, learning and creative inquiry. A significant number of faculty are resistant to adopting new technologies. This study aims to explore the digital readiness and technology adoption of faculty and staff at a theological college and to understand the current digital practices and views of key stakeholders regarding the drivers and barriers of digital readiness and technology adoption. The research aims were met through an extensive literature review and the implementation of a practical research study. A qualitative case study, using semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was carried out. The findings show that the concepts of digital literacy and digital readiness are often misunderstood. The main driver of technological adoption was COVID-19, while the main barriers were age and the digital divide. Management support was positive, but a clear vision and strategy for technology adoption was absent. The findings offer valuable insight into technological issues that affects HEIs, especially theological education. While findings cannot be generalised, they may be relatable and applicable to other disciplines. Recommendations for future research and practice are proposed for faculty and the college to consider.
- ItemOpen AccessA case study of grade 6 multilingual learners' experiences with monolingual assessment practices in a working-class township school in Cape Town.(2022) Cingo, Siviwe Innocent; Kapp, RochelleThis qualitative case study focusses on the experiences and challenges f multilingual learners when writing monolingual assessments. It draws on a growing body of poststructuralist theory on linguistic repertoire and translanguaging in order to understand how grade 6 multilingual learners engaged with monolingual assessments in a working-class school in the Western Cape where English is the language of learning and teaching for all learners except those for whom Afrikaans is a home language. Using ethnographic methods, I focused on 3 grade 6 classrooms and observed 46 lessons over a period of 8 weeks. In addition, I collected assessment transcripts, learners' notebooks and conducted interviews with 14 learners and their teachers. The data shows how classroom pedagogy tended to be mainly oral and dominated by teacher talk with limited space for learner engagement. Informal written assessment tasks were monolingual, but generally mediated by translanguaging and translation. Learners relied on teachers and on the linguistic resources of peers to facilitate comprehension of assessment questions and assessment content. By contrast, formal, high-stakes assessments included no mediation prior to and during assessment. Thematic analysis of learners' written answers shows how the majority of learners struggled with language comprehension at the level of vocabulary, sentence, as well as schooled academic literacy. The study concludes that both teachers and learners are placed in an untenable position by language in education policies that insist on monolingual assessment practices. Such policy results in compensatory, and contradictory classroom teaching and learning that is aimed at instrumental, assessment focused practices rather than meaningful learning. The study ends with recommendations for policy and practice.
- ItemOpen AccessA case study of multimodal and authoritative meaning making in grade 5 isiZulu, English, and Natural Sciences lessons in a quintile 1 primary school(2022) Msimango, Mfundo Jabulani; Mckinney, CarolynThis is a case study of multimodal and authoritative meaning making in grade 5 isiZulu, English, and Natural Sciences lessons in a quintile 1 primary school in KwaZulu-Natal, uMzinyathi Municipality in Nqutu. This study investigated the nature of classroom discourse in each of the subject areas and the opportunities learners have for participation in multimodal classroom discourse. This study is grounded in the socio-cultural approach, language and literacy as a social practice, and multimodality. Furthermore, this study adopted case study, and linguistic ethnography as a methodology. There are three major findings. First multimodality is not inherently pedagogically transformative, its success is determined by how multimodality is used, and integrated with the educator's pedagogy. Second, the presence and the use of multimodality and translanguaging does not compensate for monolingual assessments. That is, even though the isiZulu, English, and natural sciences educators were translanguaging and employing multiple modes of communication in the classroom, the written discourse was strictly monolingual in isiZulu/English. For example, learners were expected to write isiZulu class activities in monolingual isiZulu, and to write English and natural class activities in monolingual English, following bilingual oral classroom talk. Last, there is a similar communicative pattern across isiZulu, English, and natural sciences lessons. That is, the educators' pedagogical discourse was authoritative and interactional to a limited extent even in the isiZulu lessons where most learners are believed to be speaking isiZulu as their home language. In connection to this, knowledge and multimodal artefacts are presented as fixed, and learners are not given an opportunity to engage them fully nor to question, even in the isiZulu lessons where the language of instruction correlates with most learner's home language.
- ItemOpen AccessA case study of the curriculum logic of a South African university degree programme in sports management and its appropriateness to the labour market(2021) Landman, Megan; Cooper, LindaOver the past 50 years, sport has undergone a process of commercialisation and professionalisation, and has become “big business”. It now requires adequately trained professionals to manage the daily operations of sport businesses. The question in which this research originated was: are universities able to provide the kind of education needed to equip managers with the knowledge and skills necessary to manage sport in South Africa? The specific aim of this study was to determine the curriculum logic of a selected South African university degree programme in sports management and its appropriateness to the labour market. There has been little research in the South African environment in terms of how sport management is taught. Several studies have, however, been done elsewhere, showing that there is a need for a systematic study of sport management in academia, that sport and business need to be studied congruently and that sport management curriculum should move away from the science of movement (Masteralexis et al., 2015; Skinner et al., 2015). Adopting a qualitative, case study approach, and after an initial stage of desk-top research, one South African university undergraduate programme in sport management was selected for indepth research. Data was collected by making use of the curriculum details found on-line in the university's yearbook, as well as by conducting one in-depth interview with a faculty staff member. Each of the modules across all three years of study, as well as the interview with the member of faculty were analysed, on two levels. In the first level analysis, the curriculum was analysed using international guidelines provided by sport management programme accreditation bodies in the United States which identify the core elements that should form part of a sport management curriculum. The second level of analysis draws on conceptual models from the field of curriculum studies to evaluate the curriculum logic of the chosen sport management curriculum. The work of Gamble (2006, 2009, 2016) was drawn on to identify the dominant knowledge type in the curriculum, Shay's conceptual model (2011, 2013, 2016) was used to describe the nature of the coherence of the curriculum, the work of Barnett (2006) was used to analyse the recontextualisation of the curriculum, and the work of Allais and Shalem (2018) was used to examine the relationship between the curriculum and the labour market. These analyses illuminated the overall nature of the programme in terms of its selection, sequencing, pacing, recontextualisation, curriculum coherence and directionality. The study found that this case of a sport management degree did not meet the curriculum requirements stipulated by the North American guidelines. The findings were that the curriculum is comprised mainly of principled knowledge and it is a conceptually (as opposed to contextually) coherent curriculum with the majority of its modules pedagogically recontextualised. Shay and Gamble's conceptual models yielded conflicting analyses regarding the type of curriculum: in terms of Shay's model, the University of Johannesburg's (UJ) curriculum is a professional qualification, whereas Gamble's model suggests that UJ's curriculum is a general formative undergraduate degree. The pacing of the curriculum showed evidence of trying to cover too many modules and insufficient time to cover key areas in sufficient depth. The overall conclusion was that the curriculum is attempting to cover too much in three years and that it should perhaps look at becoming more focused. This can be done by strictly following the guidelines given by the North American bodies, leading to the curriculum being an occupational one that is linked closely to the labour market, or it could focus on becoming a professional qualification where it focuses more on theory and applied knowledge but in a selective way so as to ensure that it allows for a more in-depth study of the modules. Or the curriculum could settle for being a general formative degree that specialises in the postgraduate programme.
- ItemOpen AccessA chronicle of cultural transformation: ethnography of Badagry Ogu musical practices(2020) Kunnuji, Joseph; Bruinders, SylviaThis thesis examines the musical practices of Badagry Ogu people from both historical and contemporary perspectives and provides strategies for their further integration into the changing social and economic landscape characteristic of 21st-century Lagos. Badagry emerged as a Nigerian town bordering the Republic of Benin in the 19th-century colonial delineation processes, which neglected ethnic frontiers. Consequently, Badagry Ogu people, being a minority ethnic group and geographically peripheral in Nigeria, have been politically, economically and socially marginalized for generations. Using ethnographic methods in studying selected indigenous musical bands (Gogoke, Gigoyoyo, Kristitin and Akran Ajogan), a biographical sketch of master drummer Hunpe Hunga, and an applied ethnomusicology method of collaborative music composition and arrangement, I chronicle the musical heritage of Badagry Ogu people. In addition, I suggest an approach for its recontextualisation into different creative economies. I engage Thomas Turino's framework for identity and social analysis, including the concepts of cultural cohorts and cultural formations, in exploring the different attitudes, among Badagry Ogu people, towards indigenous music. I advocate for and outline a contemporary approach for musical recontextualisation as a means of inclusivity and economically empowering performers of indigenous Ogu music in Badagry. This thesis includes my additional arrangements to the studio recordings of Gogoke. The recontextualisation process, which commenced with Gogoke's recording of indigenous instruments and vocals in Badagry Lagos Nigeria, reached its full fruition in the overdubs of Western musical instruments in Cape Town, South Africa. To further explore the theme of inclusivity, I examine current gender practices in Ogu communities evident in the gendered musical practices of contemporary Badagry. With its indepth analysis of Ogu genres, musical instruments, gender issues and a framework for recontextualising African indigenous musics, this thesis, while filling the gap in the study of ethnic minorities in Nigeria, is a significant contribution of the nuanced artistic practices of Badagry Ogu people to African music scholarship.