Browsing by Department "School of Architecture, Planning and Geomatics"
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- ItemOpen Access3D property objects in South African local government: the necessity of representing and managing the third dimension in the City of Cape Town property management system(2021) Humby, Lara; Whittal, Jennifer; Simon HullThe objective of this research was to analyse whether there is a need for a form of 3D Land Administration System (LAS)in South Africa (SA) based on the land administration functions of land tenure, land use, land development and land value. The investigation can be divided into two key focus areas that align with subsystems of the LAS: (i) the Land Tenure System (LTS) that is responsible for land tenure; and (ii) the Property Management System (PMS) that is responsible for land use, development and value. These two key areas fall within the SA LAS and make use of the cadastre as a foundation. Humby (2014) focussed on the first subsystem and found that there may be a significant need within the LTS for a 3D cadastral record or a 3D legal property object (LPO). The second subsystem is the focus of this study. To analyse the need for 3D in the PMS, the City of Cape Town (CCT) was adopted as a single case study, and modelled using systems thinking tools. The model focussed on the definition, use and management of property information, or the conceptual 3D property management object (PMO), to fulfil the land administration functions of land use, development and value within the CCT PMS. Established land administration theory, including the Land Management Paradigm, the good governance principles and RRR requirements, was used as a foundation against which the CCT PMS was analysed. This allowed for an increased understanding of the current CCT PMS's ability to achieve its land administration goals, policies and sustainable development. Following this, the current use of 3D within the CCT PMS was presented and analysed, along with the potential resulting benefits, uses and challenges of introducing 3D into that system. Semi-structured in-depth interviews, documentation evidence and participant and direct observations were employed in this section of the research. Furthermore, international land administration and 3D experiences, as presented in the literature review, were incorporated in this analysis. This study concludes that introducing a third dimension into the CCT PMS would have its challenges, but the uses and benefits that have been seen globally and that are recognised within the CCT, may outweigh those challenges. The research illustrates how a 3D Property Management Object would clarify the records and aid the land administration functions. Preferably, 3D would be introduced into the cadastre and LTS initially, and the PMS could then adopt that real RRRs LPO record as a foundation for the PMO records. However, the LTS has fallen behind in technology and it appears the CCT PMS will have to take the lead in introducing 3D into the SA LAS. It is recommended that a full cost-benefit analysis is conducted prior to any further research or development within the CCT.
- ItemOpen AccessA city walkable: [Re]Imagining spatial justice through access and public space in North End, East London(2023) Hendricks, Lerys; Ewing, Kathryn; Crooijmans, HedwigA city walkable is about re-imagining spatial justice through access and public space in North End, East London, South Africa. The research questioned the state of East London's public space, its inner-city decay, and its vehicular dependency. East London lacks good quality public space that is walkable and accessible. A city walkable has streets that are comfortable, safe, interesting and offer choice. The urban environment must foster walkability. Before Apartheid, North End was a mixed-race community that was spatially integrated with the city because of its proximity to the CBD and its urban fabric. North Enders never needed to own a vehicle to access amenities. People could access their everyday amenities on foot and felt safe walking day or night. North End was a walkable, mixed-use neighbourhood. However, due to the Group Areas Act of 1950, people were forcibly removed from the city and relocated to what is now known as townships. Due to this removal people are forced to rely on public transport or private vehicle for mobility. Townships are not mixed-use, and streets do not foster walkability. By removing people from the city, Apartheid removed walkability. The fundamentals of living in a city are access to the convenience of amenities and work. Denying access to the city is a spatial injustice. This denial has resulted in a lack of walkable streets, unsafe public spaces, and car dependency. Since the forced removals of 1950' North End has been rezoned as a light industrial area. The research aimed to unlock the potential for walkability in East London. North End is re-imagined not only a walkable neighbourhood, but as a neighbourhood that is integrated with both township areas and the CBD. The links used to create linkages are a series of urban mixed-use corridors. Thus, creating a city that is spatially just. This makes North End a strategic place in the city which has the potential to become East London's 'knuckle'. Through various interventions, spatial strategies, and framework a more just, walkable city is envisioned.
- ItemRestrictedA common heritage / an appropriated history: The Cape Dutch preservation and revival movement as nation and empire builder(2007) Coetzer, NicThe Cape Dutch architectural revival at the time of the Union of South Africa in 1910 points to more than just an emerging interest in building preservation and the Arts and Crafts rural ideal germane to English architectural circles of the time. Cape Dutch architecture, and the gable of Groot Constantia in particular, was used as a symbol to establish a common European heritage that could transcend the animosities of English and Afrikaans South Africans and help forge a new white 'nation'. A closer reading reveals that Cape Dutch architecture, as history and as style, was appropriated by English architects at the Cape as the contribution South African architecture could make to the British Empire.
- ItemOpen AccessA Comparison of Close-Range Photogrammetry to Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Heritage Documentation(2013) Ruther, Heinz; Smit, Julian Lloyd; Kamamba, DonatiusThis paper describes the photogrammetric and laser scan survey of an excavated section of the Laetoli hominid track-way in Tanzania. The survey was designed to allow for comparison to a prior detailed survey of the track-way carried out in 1995, and serves as a means to compare terrestrial laser scanning with close-range photogrammetry as survey methods for heritage documentation. Each hominid footprint in the track-way was photogrammetrically recorded using a rigorous multi-image controlled configuration. In a separate process a laser scanner was used to scan the entire track-way as well as the individual footprints. The data for the comparison and track-way / footprint shape assessment were a photogrammetrically generated point cloud and a 3D model (established in 1995 and 2011), as well as a laser scan point cloud acquired in the 2011 survey. The results showed a high agreement between the laser scan and the photogrammetric data captured in 2011. These two survey processes are entirely independent of each other, the results can be accepted as entirely objective and the excellent agreement between the data can serve as quality control, confirming that the footprint point clouds were captured with an external accuracy of approximately 0.3 to 0.4mm. Standard deviations which are internal precision measures, and typically optimistic, show an individual point accuracy of 0.1 to 0.2 mm. The accuracy for the full laser scan track-way survey was in the order of 1mm.
- ItemOpen AccessA contribution to the study of the origins of colonial architecture at the Cape(1952) Biermann, Barrie Ebeneser
- ItemOpen AccessA critical analysis on the efficiency of property development approval processes in the City of Cape Town(2023) Webster, Simon; Winkler, TanjaThe Western Cape Government Economic War Room has identified that land-use management in the City of Cape Town is inefficient. Coupled with the fact that there is a housing crisis within the City of Cape Town, it is imperative that such inefficiencies are addressed with urgency. Current development regulations in the City of Cape Town are said to be hindering the involvement of the private sector in the property development space and adding unnecessary delays to the property development sector in general. This paper will argue that a reason for this can be attributed to convoluted legislation linked to property development approval processes, that is being too rigidly interpreted and not administered efficiently. There is therefore a need to understand how the overall development application system is run, especially in relation to the land use and building plan application processes, to assist in identifying the inefficiencies affecting the property development space as a whole. This will allow pragmatic solutions to be formulated and expanded on, to better expound how a more efficient development environment can be created. A further important factor in better understanding the property development space, is comprehending the context within which it functions. Namely, the governance systems which affect it, the laws and regulations applicable to it, and the lack of emphasis on saving time throughout the application process. The purpose of this paper is to show where the inefficiencies lie in the land use management and building development management application processes, and why such inefficiencies may be happening. This paper will also discuss and recommend further topics that should be studied in order to resolve the various issues named. The methodology used to achieve the aforementioned was a mixed method of data collection, which encompassed various interviews with experts working within the property and planning development fields, iterative communication with these professionals, and literature reviews. In sum, there is no one answer to the identified issues as there are many interconnected complexities that must be dealt with in order to address the inefficiencies effectively. What is clear however, is that the current implementation of administrative penalties by the City of Cape Town are causing major capacity issues within the Development Management department and Municipal Planning Tribunal, and which ultimately has a ripple effect on the system as a whole.
- ItemOpen AccessA development plan for the amenities of the Cape Town Metropolitan Region(1968) Binckes, Graeme DNo Abastract
- ItemOpen AccessA framework for guiding cadastral systems development in customary land rights contexts(2019) Hull, Simon; Whittal, Jennifer; van Belle, Jean-PaulLand reform in South Africa is reported to be failing, and land tenure reform in customary contexts is the least well-addressed component of land reform. To address this failure, a framework for guiding cadastral systems development in customary land rights contexts is developed. Using a research synthesis methodology, this conceptual framework is derived from existing literature. It comprises of five evaluation areas (underlying theory, land administration system context, change drivers, change process, and review process), each of which is broken down into related aspects and elements. The three interrelated goals of success, sustainability, and significance permeate the framework. It is suggested that cadastral systems development (and, by consequence, land tenure reform) projects operating in customary land rights contexts fail when they are not sensitive to the significance of development processes and outcomes for customary land rights-holders. The conceptual framework is tested and extended through a progressive case study of four examples of cadastral systems development in Germany, the Netherlands, Mozambique, and South Africa. The elements of the framework are compared against context-specific descriptors that emerge from the case studies to assess how well they have been addressed. Thus, each case brings contextual relevance to the framework, sequentially increasing its groundedness. The European cases are chosen because they are seen to be examples of ‘good practice’ for their contexts and because developments in southern Africa have drawn from and been influenced by them. Hence, they are expected to add relevant insight to the conceptual framework. The southern African cases are chosen because they reflect the intended context of application of the framework and have been undergoing cadastral systems development for the past few decades. The framework was found to be useful in highlighting strengths and weaknesses in all four cases. Weaknesses in the European cases related to their insensitivity towards human rights, class and gender issues possibly arising from assumptions about the uniformity of their socio-economic context. There was also inadequate attention given to the review processes. Strengths arose from the developed nature of the countries as reflected in their good governance and well-functioning cadastral systems. In the southern African cases, the primary weaknesses arose from the adoption of inappropriate theory of development, leading to a loss of significance of development process and outcomes. Other weaknesses are related to the lack of developing status of southern African countries, as reflected in their poor land governance and low levels of technological capacity. Strengths related to acknowledgement of human rights issues and the need to address historical injustices in the southern African cases. The resultant, grounded framework is intended to be used as a tool by policymakers and cadastral systems developers. By taking note of the framework’s aspects and elements, it is proposed that cadastral systems development in customary land rights contexts will carry significance for the land rights-holders, encouraging their adoption and embrace of the process and outcomes of development, which in turn fosters the success and sustainability of development.
- ItemOpen AccessA physical development plan for the Tygerberg Hills area(1975) Boshoff, Jacobus Johannes Christoffel; Gasson, BarrieIt has been aptly said that one thing in the world is invincible .... an idea whose time has come. Such an idea in our days, I believe, is the care of man's ancestral home .... the natural environment. However, our country is still in a pioneering stage in so far as it, up till now, accepts the rugged principle that man has the freedom to do with his land just about whatever he wants to do. Under a proud banner of the above “right”, man is unscrupulously exploiting his natural resources and ruthlessly despoiling his landscape. This really boils down to uncontrolled speculation and limitless profit to the few in the name of progress and, if this is how the development of the environment is understood by man, then the perfect formula has already been found. That is to say, that no planning is needed .... planning is then obviously only an obstacle in the free- for-all, laissez-faire competitive market.
- ItemOpen AccessA Place to connect(2023) Ndungu, Shirlyn; Papanicolaou, StellaThis dissertation contributes to the discourse on the design of public space in the city. It illustrates a design approach that favours the social welfare of marginalised communities living in Cape Town in particular foreign nationals. By providing a socio- economic anchor for this marginalised community this project aims to assist with their integration into their host nations. The inquiry stems from my lived experience as a Third Culture Kid and student of architecture engaging with the subject of identity and a sense of place. Using lessons learnt from exploring the transition & reentry model of TCKs the proposal suggests ways of assisting foreign nationals in integrating into the city. The document is organised in 4 parts that reflect how ideas of identity formation can be translated into place making strategies. Key themes emerging from this proposal are hybridity, memory, liminality and transparency. I begin by portraying how the concept of hybridity can be understood through the lived experiences of TCKs. I then explore the relationship between memory and place attachment through the lens of a TCK. Ways of translating memory and hybridity are further explored in the precedent studies of The Harpa Concert Hall and Conference Centre and The National Museum of African American History and Culture. The architectural program and design response were reached through the analysis of immigrant settlement and integration requirements. Through mapping the city with parameters set by this study a site is selected in former District 6. The design proposal looks to suggest potential way of supporting the integration of foreign nationals whilst reviving the memory of the once culturally diverse community of District 6. The concept looks to provide spaces for cultural education and enterprise as a way of stimulating public engagement between foreign nationals and local citizens.
- ItemOpen AccessA policy for the stimulated development of the Transkei(1968) Gemmel, RobertThe aim of this study was to investigate the present development of the Transkei and to propose a policy for its future development, bearing in mind the potential of' the country and its people. The Transkei, an independent state, was looked at in relation to the developed areas of Southern Africa, and found to be geographically isolated from such economically developed areas and major communication links. Hence stimulated development is necessary. Physiographically the Transkei can be divided into three regions. Practically speaking two distinct regions can be distinguished, viz. the coastal sub-tropical region and the inland grass regions suitable for mixed farming.The natural resources which have the best development potential are forests, builders' marble, base minerals and water resources in general. Certain areas of the Transkei were found to be ideally suitable for the production of cash crops such as coffee, cotton, sugar, tea and fibre. The rest of the Transkei is suitable for mixed farming. There is thus a possibility of processing various products, i.e. an industrial potential. The problem in the Transkei is defined as basically a social problem; the attitude of the people does not create an environment conducive to economic development. Productivity per morgen and per person is low. With 98% of the population living in the non-urban areas and 85% of the economically active population being engaged in agriculture there is over-crowding on the land and per capita income is low.The standard of education of the people is low and there are virtually no employment opportunities other than in subsistence farming.
- ItemOpen AccessA river remembered - reconnecting to landscape, memory and place-making through water routesDalberg, Josephine; Hindes, ClintonRooted in the Cederberg region, this thesis looks towards the intangible and deep memory in landscape as concepts that can be harnessed to support an emerging practice of place-making in a community on the outskirts of Clanwilliam. Acknowledging the growing claim to Khoe and San heritage among members of said community, the project found its departure in an investigation into the intangible ties that once connected the Cederberg's indigenous peoples to place. The research process led to an understanding of the central role that rivers and tributaries have played in human engagement with landscape. In this local context, rivers functioned not only as a vital water resource but also as navigational corridors that cut through the Cederberg's complex mountain range. These were water routes that supported human patterns of movement and gathering whilst simultaneously connecting far reaches of the wilderness. This thesis resurfaces these landscape memories by introducing a water thread to Clanwilliam that remembers and re-establishes the notion of rivers as movement routes and gathering. Simultaneously, the project's proposed water network would connect this otherwise spatially and socially segregated town. Taking design and material reference from the immediate Cederberg landscape, this thesis hopes to connect Clanwilliam's members not only to one another but also, importantly, to the wilderness landscape that surrounds the town and is so deeply embedded in its history.
- ItemOpen AccessA school of general knowledge: Special Study, The junction from building to site.(1963) Du Toit, RogerIn the design of detail, there are two aspects that require special attention. The first is the meeting of building elements with each other, the second is the meeting of building and site elements. This special study is concerned with the second. Its starting point is that the architecture harmonises rather than contrasts with its surroundings.
- ItemOpen AccessA settlement-level perspective of the spatial relationship between economic performance and population change in South Africa between 2001 and 2011(2021) Arnold, Kathryn Anne; Smit, Julian; le Roux, AlizeMigration has long been an important phenomenon shaping the demographic profile of South Africa, and migration and labour are often considered to be intrinsically linked. The push–pull theory of migration, which still tends to dominate gravity-based migration modelling as well as academic thinking, is grounded on the assumption that migration is a functional and inevitable outcome of spatial inequality. Economic drivers of migration are most frequently used to explain population movements in the South African context, given, especially, that slow and uneven economic growth, economic disparities, inequality and unemployment persist as some of the country's biggest socio-economic challenges. Urban living holds the promise of employment prospects and improved conditions, and thus the basic premise of many micro-level models of migrant decision-making is that migration occurs with the expectation of being better off in doing so. The research design of this study set out to empirically investigate the theoretical perspective of the push–pull model of migration from an economic and settlement-based standpoint, and makes novel contributions to the disciplines of Geography, Geographical Information Science, and Urban and Regional Planning. The ultimate aim was to establish a settlement-level perspective of the spatial relationship between economic output (as a measure of economic performance) and working-age population change in South Africa between the Census years of 2001 and 2011. To support the settlement-level analysis scale, special attention was paid to sourcing fine-resolution economic and population datasets covering both the national spatial extent, as well as the tenyear temporal analysis window, and applying advanced GIS methods and techniques to prepare, align, analyse and visualise these datasets. In addition, traditional non-spatial statistical analyses were also employed to measure and quantify the relationship using a correlation-based research approach. Furthermore, the research also proposed a novel way of classifying settlements in South Africa, according to their economic profiles. Based on the research findings, the study identified eight broad settlement types in South Africa, according to an economically profiled settlement classification typology. Population change in the working-age population was found to have a positive statistically significant association with economic performance at settlement level in South Africa. This relationship proved to be multifaceted, given the complex nature of the South African economic landscape at settlement level, with considerable variability (based on the strength of the relationship) between different settlement types. While none of the settlement types exhibited a very strong relationship between economic performance and population change, several settlement types did indicate a moderate to strong association, while other settlement types were shown to have negligible to weak associations. Furthermore, in certain settlement types, some demographic groups, based on age, gender, employment status, and skill level, were found to have markedly higher associations with the economy than others. In its empirical contribution towards evidence-based decision-making, especially in the domain of urban and regional planning, the research findings are valuable in helping to support future policy and development interventions so that development planning can be more successfully targeted and more sensitive to the local South African context, given that South Africa has an intricate history of labour migration, and labour-force participation is a key factor for individuals to improve their socio-economic status. The study highlights important spatial linkages between economic opportunities and patterns of population change in South Africa, and defines and explores a new perspective of this relationship at settlement level. The results of this study further reinforce the literature, that nuanced and dynamic interplays are evident between the push and pull factors influencing population-change dynamics, in that, on its own, economic performance was not found to be a definitive predictor of population change or migration likelihood at settlement level.
- ItemOpen AccessA study for the redevelopment of Muizenberg(1968) Hockly, Anthony HFrom being "South Africa's Premier Holiday Resort", Muizenberg today presents a picture of a depressed resort suburb. This Thesis will study the physical, social and economic characteristics of the area and by relating them to present and likely future patterns of social activity, identify the problems that beset the area and gauge Muizenberg's future as a holiday resort. The Thesis will then put forward proposals for the relief of these problems and present a redevelopment plan within the general framework of which detailed physical form could be planned.
- ItemOpen AccessA study of the relationship between market price of property and residential environment in the suburb of Wynberg, Cape Province(1970) Goold-Verschoyle, Anna Mary; Beinart, JulianThis Thesis investigates the residential structure of Wynberg, a suburb of Cape Town, and it has both a short and long term purpose. The main intent of the Thesis is contained in its short term purpose, that is it attempts to find patterns of selective differentiation in residential location for various groups in the community. An assessment of the factors that are most salient in the location of households must begin with an appreciation of the range of the relevant variables which will vary according to the scale of the project and the general mode of analysis that is contemplated. It is not intended in this study to examine the interaction between those variables such as population, economic organisation, technology and environment which would be expected to play a role in shaping a macroscale study of residential structure at Metropolitan level. The general mode of analysis here is on the suburban or microscale and it is intended to compare various attributes associated with environmental quality (using an experimental vocabulary and scoring system) with a constant unit of measurement studied over time. This unit of measurement is the market price of property adjusted for comparability over time and for which a large source of primary data is available in the records of property transactions in the Valuation Department of the Cape Town City Council. It is assumed that the price people pay for dwellings is a good index of.socio~ economic status and that decisions made in the market place are by and large rational ones. Wynberg was chosen because it ·appeared to have a wide range of residential building types in various income groups and because it contained both White and Coloured Group Areas with little induced change due to Government legislation. The study is restricted in deptp to transactions in the property market between the years 1963 to 1967. It was originally intended to study a ten year period, but the length of time taken to procure the data from the Valuation Department precluded so long a study. The evaluation of environmental quality includes physical, perceptual and social factors and a necessary part of the study is a testing of the expeF.imental vocabulary and scoring system. The variables to be studied in the analysis are therefore qualit~tive in the case of environment and quantitative in the case of the market price of property. The long term purpose of the study is to find a benchmark for further study on a city-wide scale of the locational patterns of high value residential areas. Before such a study could be undertaken some assumption would have to be made about 'high value residential areas'. What are the factors which influence location in Aigh value residential areas? One could postulate that a high scoring on the environmental quality scale would be a more significant factor in location in higher value areas than accessibility to work place, or to public transport routes. Therefore, if a positive correlation was found between environmental quality and high market price in the Wynberg area, a threshold market value might be revealed above which one couid study high value locational patterns throughout the Metropolitan area. Analysis of high value areas was carried out by the Chicago School of Ecologists in the 1920's when American cities were experiencing the first rapid expansion to the suburbs, brought about by wide spread use of the automobile in a period of increasing economic growth and affluence. Since then, according to Leo F. Sc0 hnore (i), studies of ecological structure have been carried out in at least one city in every major region of the world. To the writer's knowledge, no such study has yet been carried out into the locational patterns of high class residential areas in South African cities. The Thesis is divided into three parts. The first summarises research in the related fields of residential structure, environmental psychology and urban design. The second part is the main body of the Thesis containing the Wynberg Case Study and the third part is concerned with conclusions.
- ItemOpen AccessA technique for optimal selection of segmentation scale parameters for object-oriented classification of urban scenes(2013) Ikokou, Guy Blanchard; Smit, JulianMulti-scale image segmentation produces high level object features at more than one level, compared to single scale segmentation. Objects generated from this type of segmentation hold additional attributes such as mean values per spectral band, distances to neighbouring objects, size, and texture, as well as shape characteristics. However, the accuracy of these high level features depends on the choice of segmentation scale parameters. Several studies have investigated techniques for scale parameter selection. These proposed approaches do not consider the different objects’ size variability found in complex scenes such as urban scene as they rely upon arbitrary object size measures, introducing instability errors when computing image variances. A technique to select optimal segmentation scale parameters based on image variance and spatial autocorrelation is presented in this paper. Optimal scales satisfy simultaneously the conditions of low object internal variance and high inter-segments spatial autocorrelation. Applied on three Cape Town urban scenes, the technique produced visually promising results that would improve object extraction over urban areas.
- ItemOpen AccessA techno-economic evaluation of the geodesic dome as a possible form of low-income house in Southern Africa(1984) Waizenegger, Philip; Kilian, Wilsey; Ramsay, GrahamThis dissertation studies the viability of one alternative building system as an option to conventional low-income housing. The need for research in this regard has been expressed by various government committees and commissions of inquiry, as well as by the private sector, to be of vital importance in facing the future housing challenge in southern Africa. The study is largely confined to black housing. The search for a form of shelter which combines traditional black low-technology and innovative Wes tern high-technology in a successful marriage, brings the geodesic dome to light. The conclusion reached is that in economic, technical and cultural terms, the dome compares favourably with conventional low-income housing. The social acceptance of the structure is a topic of research beyond the scope of this study.
- ItemOpen AccessA way to use GIS (incl. geomasking) to understand homelessness: a focus on the spatial characteristics of and around sleeping locations of the homeless in Cape Town City Bowl(2020) Kekana, Dime; Smit, JulianBackground: The homeless individuals/groups are the most vulnerable and less dignified member of the society. The evidences lie in the nature of their sleeping locations in the urban spaces, amongst other aspects. An internationally unique and integrated approach (GIS/socio-spatial) is utilized to enhance the knowledge and understanding of homelessness through analyzing the spatial characteristics of and around the sleeping locations of the homeless community in the urban public spaces, Cape Town City Bowl (South Africa) case study. Data Source and Method: Through the quantitative approach, the individual sleeping locations of The Homeless, including their surrounding characteristics, are observed daily for two weeks, 13-26 Oct. 2018 (total of all locations: n = 9515, daily average, n = 680) between 06:00 am and 08:30am. The analyses entail sequential application of eight analytical methods; spatial distribution, attribute analysis, proximity analysis, weather analysis, and obfuscation/geographic masking Results: (a) The daily individual sleeping locations of the homeless individuals and groups increase over time but their geographic distributions are similar or display insignificant/little variations. (b) Majority of these locations are situated in marginalized urban spaces that deny The Homeless personal privacy/security, human dignity and perpetuate stigmatization and social isolation. (c) The sleeping locations of The Homeless are far from the sources of basic needs to enhance their livelihoods (e.g., water resources). (d) Although more data is needed, however, the limited data in this research show that weather conditions are (in)directly related to the changes in the numbers of sleeping locations. (d) The voronoi masking and weight rand perturbation are best presenting the sleeping location of The Homeless without compromising the spatial confidence of The Homeless, and the spatial distributions/patterns of these locations. Conclusion: GIS (geographic information system) is capable of enhancing the knowledge and understanding of homelessness, and therefore, it can inform establishments and improvements of initiatives/measures that seek to reduce the vulnerability of the homeless community and/or integrate them with the public community, especial in the urban spaces.
- ItemOpen AccessA web of relations: co-production arrangements in urban sanitation infrastructure provision in informal settlements in Arusha City, Tanzania(2019) Abwe, Furaha; Odendaal, NancyMany city governments and actors have tested approaches or models and technological developments to address urban service crises. But this has tended to be without much success, as the service delivery gap keeps widening, leading to governance failure. One response to this decline in governance capacity has been the evolution of co-production arrangements. The overarching aim of this thesis was to examine the co-production arrangements of urban sanitation infrastructure provision among multiple actors in informal settlements, and to interrogate whether the predominance of such arrangements was indicative of an alternative form of city governance. Two wards within Arusha city (Tanzania) were selected as case studies. A range of research methods was employed to uncover the landscape of actors involved, and to explore co-productive processes, socio-cultural aspects and other complexities shaping sanitation provision in the two selected informal settlements. Case study methodology was used with a range of data collection methods (household surveys, focus group discussions, document review and semi-structured interviews). The study adopted a relational approach informed by ActorNetwork Theory as the analytical framework for understanding the human-material interactions in the sanitation chain. Key findings indicate that co-production serves a public function, but it is not recognised as such in Tanzanian public policy. Individual and collective co-production arrangements have been established that bring together various state and non-state actors in the sanitation chain to form networks. These networks make service delivery possible, which one actor alone could not deliver. The study reveals that sanitation infrastructure in informal settlements is largely provided by the household, although some are either inactive or captured co-procuders. Further, the narratives indicate that complexities and the contextual factors (including gender-based power dynamics, social norms, values, traditions and culture) shape access to sanitation facilities in the city of Arusha. The study found that the exclusion of women and children from sharing toilet facilities motivated Maasai men to practice defection in open areas. Further, this study speculates on an alternative form of governing city affairs based on actor-networks in the co-production process: co-productive networked governance. Future research is needed to examine how co-productive networked governance could be integrated into the existing city governance structures and how informal governance arrangement could be recognised and enhanced.