Browsing by Department "Department of Sociology"
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- ItemOpen AccessThe 1985 school crisis in the Western Cape(1992) Nekhwevha, Fhulufhuwani Hastings; Molteno, Frank; Jubber, KenThe thesis is an exploratory and primarily empirical study with the objective to construct a detailed chronology of the events of the 1985 school crisis particularly in African schools in the Western Cape and to reflect on the relationship between the school crisis and the organic crisis in South Africa and the Western Cape in particular. The data for the thesis were derived from primary and secondary documentary sources and in-depth interview material. A total of 51 interviewees were selected principally on the basis of the specific role they played particularly within the Department of Education and Training institutions as well as in community, political, workers', parents', teachers' and student organisations during the 1985 school crisis in the Western cape. Interviews were open-ended with a semi-structured interview schedule which consisted of topical headings. The thesis's theoretical framework was informed by Gramsci's Marxism am the key concepts employed in the analysis included Gramsci's notions of hegemony and organic crisis as well as Freire's concept of conscientisation. Utilising Gramsci's Marxism, the historical transformations in economic, political and ideological spheres which affected the development of student struggles and the crisis in the Department of Education and Training schools in 1985 were examined. Chapter 1 deals with .the 'Total strategy' as a form of state "formative action" to overcome the general crisis. It also documents in chronological order the main events of the school boycotts and both political and economic struggles on a national level from 1953 to 1984 and early 1985 in order to provide a sound background for the 1985 school crisis in the Western Cape. Chapter 2 which is offered as an empirical contribution to sociology of education covers a series of complex events and processes which constituted the core of the 1985 school crisis in the Western Cape in a chronological order. In the conclusion, Gramsci's concepts of 'hegemony' and 'organic crisis' supplemented by Freire's notion of conscientisation were directly utilised to analyse the slogan 'People's education for people's power'. One crucial observation explicit in the thesis am expressed through verbatim interview extracts was that the school crisis could only be resolved when the apartheid capitalist system in its entirety has been abolished.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 2010 Fifa world cup: Perceptions of its sports and development legacy potential(2010) Mills, Lucy Caroline; De Wet, JacquesSport mega-events are a contemporary phenomenon which embody and unify global processes in an increasingly globalised world. Whilst the sport industry has grown exponentially as a result of global market forces envisaging extensive economic opportunities, hosting a mega-event has also been economically attractive for cities and countries. In aiming to be globally competitive and world-class, mega-events derive from an economic-growth centred model of urban development, whereby benefits will 'trickle-down' to the poor and marginalised (Pillay and Bass, 2008). The 2010 FIFA World Cup typifies such an event as it encompasses historical, geopolitical, economic and socio-cultural processes that have intensified and been intensified by, globalisation. South Africa's bid for the 2010 FIFA World Cup however, has differed from other mega-event bids. Official World Cup discourses boast that the World Cup will produce lasting socio-economic impacts to South Africa and indeed the rest of Africa. FIFA and the South African government have labelled the 2010 World Cup an 'African World Cup' with promises of stimulating pan-African economic and sociocultural opportunities. There is significant emphasis on providing social benefits to underprivileged populations. One of the anticipated social legacies is the development of sport structures and increased participation of sport in disadvantaged areas where barriers to sport are most entrenched. The aim of the research project was to determine whether a sport and development legacy is in fact materialising in both South Africa and Zambia as a result of South Africa hosting the World Cup. I employed a qualitative research design and conducted 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews with representatives from a wide variety of sport and development related organisations in Cape Town and Lusaka. I regarded this cross-section of people as best positioned to provide evidence of a legacy. v Findings demonstrate that the official World Cup discourses generated by FIFA and the South African government pledging benefits continent-wide, have infiltrated everyday discourse of people in townships in Lusaka and Cape Town. There is however a discrepancy between this rhetoric and the reality. Respondents from smallscale, community-based sports structures rarely perceive themselves or their organisations to benefit from World Cup opportunities due to a lack of access to information and resources. Despite limited tangible gains or involvement, a sense of pride in South Africa, and indeed Africa, is evident. This alone is contributing to the support of the World Cup rather than visible positive changes in disadvantaged communities. In contrast to these organisations, representatives from larger, wealthier sport for development NGOs record increased funding and activities. This research has therefore exposed a dual system of sports delivery present in South Africa and Zambia. Whilst sport for development NGOs thrive, community sports structures struggle to the point of being near dysfunctional or even non-existent. Given the problematic history of donor-driven, Northern-based development programmes, we must be wary of perpetuating the marginalisation of local voices. This thesis suggests that pitfalls of globalisation at large are reproduced in globalised sport. It substantiates existing literature that doubts the potential of the World Cup to generate development among poorer populations.
- ItemOpen AccessA resurgence of eugenics? The role of race in egg donation(2019) Moyo, Rufaro; Pande, AmritaDespite the Human Genome Project in 2000 discovering that there is no hereditary distinction between races, the naturalized bio-centric conception of race continues to pervade our society (Roberts, 2011). One such area where this happens is during the egg donation process. Egg donation is a part of the growing industry of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs), which clinics employ in the treatment of infertility. Donor agents and clinics often classify their donors using racial categories. This research project sought to discover what role race played in the egg donation process, using racial matching and neo-eugenics as its theoretical frameworks. Ten semi-structured open ended interviews were conducted with nine participants, all of whom work in the field of fertility. The study discovered that the role race plays in the egg donation process is central. Both recipients and donor agents employ racial categories in order to find an egg donor that racially matches the patient, which is the phenomenon of racial-matching. This phenomenon of race-matching is a process of neo-eugenics. Whilst many think of ‘better birth’ at the mention of the term eugenics, this study makes the argument that racial matching mimics eugenic practices of maintaining the myth of racial purity. Donor agents speak of an ‘obviousness’ of the use of racial categories, naturalizing race as biological and seemingly legitimizing hegemonic notions of the family. Yet despite the prevalent use of race, donor agents display discomfort in discussing race and employ emotional narratives that speak to the fairy tale of a supposedly racially homogeneous and heterosexual family being made as a means of deflecting possible problematic views of egg donation. The study acknowledges the socio-political issues that often underpin ARTs, which is carefully concealed by narratives of family creation and the search for wellness. The study concludes by reiterating these arguments and making mention of the need for these power dynamics surrounding race to be dismantled to achieve social justice for all.
- ItemOpen AccessA social survey of persons over sixty living in institutions in greater Cape Town(1954) Cooper, Rona Maureen; Batson, Edward
- ItemOpen AccessA sociological study of alienation(1974) Bekker, Ann Michaud; Hare, PaulThe aim of this study is to illuminate the problems which arise in seeking to test Marx's theory of alienation empirically, and to assess the contributions of empirical studies of alienation to circumvent some of these problems. Firstly, a framework is constructed to analyse different theories of alienation. Next, Marx's theory is so analysed, as well as a ruler of other empirical studies. This theory and these studies are critically assessed. In conclusion, it is shown that Marx's theory needs elaboration especially with regard to the conception of 11 class consciousness". Empirical studies of this theory, moreover, tend to be either too confined in theoretical scope, on the one hand, or too divergent from the basic Marxist approach, on the other.
- ItemOpen AccessA study of the effects of the mother-child relationship on the socialization process of individuals (children and adults) as seen in a comparative study of normal and abnormal families (families with and without identified patients) based on the systematic method of evaluating case history data(1972) Ramfol, Anita Devi C; Stricklin, J LThe mother-child relationship has been 11 field of interest of a variety of educational disciplines. The subject has been studied from many viewpoints.
- ItemOpen AccessAccess to Tuberculosis testing among adolescents living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: social factors and theoretical considerations(2022) van Staden, Quintin; Toska, Elona; Garba, Muhammed FaisalBackground: Addressing adolescent tuberculosis (TB) is a critical step towards eliminating TB in high burden countries, especially in HIV endemic communities. South Africa has the highest rates of TB/HIV co-infection and the largest population of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) in the world – contributing substantial risk to TB-related morbidity and mortality in this already vulnerable cohort. Previous research on TB has largely overlooked adolescents and ALHIV which has left knowledge – and potential service provision – gaps, but also opportunities for important research. TB among ALHIV is a complex public health challenge, needing to be understood in the context of the unique socio-emotional life stage of adolescence. This dissertation aims to provide insights into the critical first step in the ALHIV TB care cascade: access to TB testing. Through quantitative analysis, I explore the social factors that promote or prevent ALHIV from accessing TB testing in South Africa. Methods: In this longitudinal study, I analysed the Mzantsi Wakho cohort data from n=1046 ALHIV (10-19 years old) from 53 health facilities across the Amathole district of the Eastern Cape. N= 933 (89%) ALHIV – those who participated in the second and third cohort waves – were included in this analysis. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires, assisted by trained and experienced researchers three times between 2014/2015 to 2017/2018. The selection of social factors that influence access to the outcome of TB testing was informed by an extensive scoping literature review. These factors were initially categorised using WHO's social determinants of health framework, which applies the Ecological Model. Thereafter, factors were filtered through the People Centred Model of TB care – to draw focus to the factors pertaining to the individual (both inter- and intrapersonal) rather than factors imbedded in health systems and services. Analysis was conducted in four steps: First descriptive analyses was used to summarise sociodemographic characteristics, relevant TB clinical data and HIV related factors at each interview (T2 and T3). Secondly, cross tabulation and frequencies of factors were done, comparing ALHIV who tested for TB to those that did not. Thirdly, univariate analysis was performed to identify factors with statistically significant associations with having a TB test or not. Lastly, multivariate regression models of these significant factors were run, both for each time point and over time (across both time points) using a stepwise approach by Hosmer-Lemeshow. The “why” or “how” these specific factors affected the probability of TB testing were then explored through the application of sociological theories and concepts, including the life course approach, social action theory and habitus. Findings: Consistently experiencing the following factors over time were linked to greater odds of TB testing: being 15 years and older (OR 1.43, CI 1.06-1.92, p 0.019), female ALHIV (OR 1.34, CI 1.02-1.75, p 0.033), in a relationship at both time points (OR 1.79, CI 1.23-2.62, p 0.002) and having had a viral load test each year (OR 1.50, CI 1.11-2.02, p 0.008). Having TB symptoms at either wave 2 or 3 was associated with TB testing (OR 1.46, CI 1.08-1.96, p 0.013). At Wave 2, no sim card phone (OR 0.64, CI 0.47-0.85, p 0.002) and having to pay R10 or more to get to the clinic (OR 0.68, CI 0.51-0.92, p 0.011) were associated with lower odds of TB testing, while viral load testing in the past year (OR 1.74, CI 1.26-2.40, p 0.001), living in a rural setting (0R 1.54, CI 1.10-2.16, p 0.012), being 15 years and older (OR 1.60, CI 1.19- 2.15, p 0.002) and reporting any TB symptoms (OR 1.72, CI 1.29-2.30, p< 0.001) were associated with higher odds of TB testing. At Wave 3, when most of the participants were in late adolescence being 15 years and older (OR 1.61, CI 1.19-2.19, p 0.002), living in informal housing (OR 1.58, CI 1.07-2.37, p 0.023), being in a relationship (OR 1.58, CI 1.15-2.18, p.005), experienced community violence (OR 1.43, CI 1.05-1.96, p 0.023), food security (OR 1.53, CI 1.11-2.11, p 0.010) and experienced any TB symptoms (OR 1.65, CI 1.25-2.20, p 0.001) had higher odds of reporting TB testing. Discussion and Conclusion: In this Eastern Cape cohort of ALHIV, factors linked to where ALHIV live (living rurally, cost to get the clinic more than R10, living in informal housing and having experienced community violence) as a reflection of the deep structural issues that shape health symptoms and healthcare access, who they are (age, sex) and their close emotional and nutritional support (being in a relationship, food security) have shown to strongly influence TB testing. Some of these factors are directly linked to increasing risk of TB exposure or vulnerability to TB: rural residence, informal housing and unsafe communities. To delve into why these factors shaped TB testing in ALHIV, sociological theories and concepts were applied to these findings. This dissertation took a holistic approach to bridge a critical knowledge gap in ALHIV's entry into TB care, extending our biomedical understanding with applied sociological frameworks. The work of this dissertation could enhance the current HIV services package offered to ALHIV by creating an awareness and identifying adolescents that may not be reached by current TB testing services. With this insight, TB services in South Africa, and perhaps broader afield, can introduce targeted interventions and social protection measures tailored to address adolescent TB testing, particularly in terms of integrating TB testing into HIV services.
- ItemOpen AccessAccess, use, and regulation practices in Lower Silvermine Wetland. Fish Hoek Cape Town(2019) Dzingwe, Tafadzwa; Matose, FrankA political ecology approach was taken in explaining the context of resource use. Political ecology seeks to understand politics about nature. Where access and regulation practices are political tenets within the commons issue understudy in Lower Silvermine Wetland. Hence they are resources held in commons within the Lower Silvermine Wetland. Where there are multiple users with different claims and interest. The ability to derive benefits from resources known as access is essential as it helps in understanding the perceptions and relation of users to the wetland. Within the two concepts of political ecology and access, it sought to locate and situate access into the Lower Silvermine Wetland by focusing on users use, regulation by authorities and nature. Nature users derive benefits from the Lower Silvermine Wetland. This is shown by the way they relate, use, and perceive the wetland. User access is pivotal to the study as it shows what the Lower Silvermine Wetland means to different users. Therefore nature means different things to different users, and this determines the way they use the wetland. The other part of the study becomes significant because as much there is access into the Lower Silvermine Wetland, regulatory measures are in place to prohibit users from doing other forms of activities into the Wetland Lower Silvermine Wetland. This is controlled through permissible and non-permissible operations that have been put in place by authorities that regulate and control the commons area understudy. It is of concern that some regulatory measures have caused deprivation of access, and some have been weak that an enhancement in regulation should be considered. Access into the Lower Silvermine Wetland has led to a lot of misunderstanding between users and authorities. These misunderstandings are a result of use, regulation, and maintenance. It is important to note that everyone has the right to access wetlands, according to the South African Constitution. This is important to the study as every user has the right to access nature without restriction as long they don’t break the control measures. This will lead to conserving plant and animal diversity also to ensure access is derived without any safety or security threat. At the same time if regulation and control is followed it will lead to a good user nature relationship. Hence ensuring that authorities understand each other and maintain the Lower Silvermine Wetland. Therefore the study becomes pertinent in establishing implications of regulatory practices in the Lower Silvermine Wetland.
- ItemOpen AccessAdoption : salient experiences of a sample of adult adoptees(1987) Boult, Brenda Ernestine; Jubber, KenThis investigation into adoption began in January 1986 in the Republic of South Africa. The aim was to understand adoption from the subjective viewpoint of adults who were adopted as infants or children. It was based on the working hypothesis that although adoption has universal qualities, there would also be regional, cultural and time-related differences affecting both the practice and experience of adoption. Appeals were made for respondents through three popular magazines, private welfare organisations, the Registrar of Adoption and by means of "snowball sampling". Questionnaires were subsequently posted country-wide between April and October 1986. The questionnaire contained 209 open- and closed-ended questions covering the period from adoption placement to adulthood. An eighty-eight percent response rate was obtained. The material was analysed with emphasis on the qualitative interpretation of the content of the data in the open-ended responses. The sample comprised eighty-two adult adoptees between the ages of eighteen and seventy, of whom seventy-one percent were female, twenty-nine percent male, 58,5 percent Afrikaans speaking and 41,5 percent English- speaking. Cultural differences were found in the responses of the two language groups. Variables that have been considered relevant or insufficiently explored in the literature on adoption were examined. These were: age of placement; attachment in the adoptive home; manner and timing of revelation of adoptive status and adoptee reactions to this; adoptee thoughts and fears concerning birth parents, the school experience; identity problems in adolescence and adulthood manifested as insecurity or behaviour problems; the adoptee's need to know more about his or her origins and the concomitant consequences. Notable findings were: the paucity of information given to these adoptees about their origins; thoughts and fears about birth parents that occurred as early as the pre-school period; childhood fears arising from the adoptive status; sensitivity about being adopted; peer group cruelty in pre-puberty and a seventeen percent parasuicide incidence among the members of this sample. Another finding related to the adult adoptee's need for a bio-genealogical history, especially in view of the high risk of certain genetic disorders, particularly among the Afrikaner population. The majority of the adoptees in this sample entertained the possibility of meeting birth parents one day; for many this began in pre-puberty. This was contingent on the quality of the relationship with their adoptive parents in only a minority of cases. Few adoptees could share their thoughts about adoption and birth parents with their adoptive parents. Adoptees who were 'searching' or who had 'found' birth parents were motivated more by a need to know who they were and why they had been given up for adoption, than by a need to replace the 'lost parent'. Where the relationship with the adoptive parents was warm and satisfying, the finding of birth parent(s) did not affect the adoptive relationship deleteriously. These findings point to a need for more research on adoption following changes in South African adoption laws allowing adult adoptees access to court records of their adoption. Adoptees and their parents need informed assistance from those who counsel them.
- ItemOpen AccessAfricans in Cape Town : the origins and development of state policy and popular resistance to 1936(1985) Kinkead-Weekes, Barry HThis study seeks to develop an understanding of the evolution of state policy towards Africans in Cape Town, and to document the resistance engendered by discriminatory and oppressive laws. Utilizing both primary and secondary sources, the thesis describes and analyses complex social problems and political struggles which originated and developed in the period before 1936. By emphasizing the material and political dimensions, as well as the class interests and social categories involved in this uneven process of struggle, the thesis attempts to transcend the limitations not only of functionalist and "conflict pluralist'' perspectives, but also of the more simplistic Marxist formulations propounded within the field of South African urban studies.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the independent trade unions in South Africa in the 1970s(1986) Maree, Johannes Gerhardus Bester; Wilson, FrancisThe thesis is an historical and sociological study of the independent trade unions in South Africa in the 1970s. Several research methods were used: participant and non-participant observation, primary and secondary source, and open-ended interviews. In addition, shown to the unions for correction of clarification of issues. material, structured earlier drafts were factual errors and the findings of the thesis are as follows: historically, the independent unions went through two stages in the 1970s. During the first stage they struggled for survival against capital and the state, which opposed their very existence. At the end of 1976 their future hung in the balance because of political turmoil, economic recession, and state repression. But they survived and in the second stage they fought to gain formal recognition at a limited number of companies. Sociologically, the thesis focusses on two major themes: the efforts of the independent unions to be democratic organisations and their strategies to acquire power. A central finding is that the independent unions strove to build up their strength by organising democratically at the workplace. Certain strategies in organising and tactics in industrial disputes were more successful than others in helping the unions build up their strength. The unions went through a democratisation process that entailed three phases: the creation of democratic structures in the unions, developing workers' capacities to take control of the structures, and the emergence of representative and accountable worker leadership. While this process had not been completed by the end of the period under consideration, the strong influence initially exercised by intellectual leaders was reduced considerably. The empirical findings of the thesis are used to evaluate the appropriateness of relevant sociological theories of trade unions and related issues. They are frequently found to be inappropriate , being based on conditions very different from those that faced the independent unions. Finally , it is concluded that the democratic form of organisation adopted by the independent unions in the 1970s had a definite political significance which started emerging in the 1980s.
- ItemOpen AccessAn exploratory study highlighting the complexities in the targeting of beneficiaries in Malawi's social cash transfer programme(2021) Mwanza, Desire; Garba, Faisal“The rise of social protection in form of social safety nets is attributed to the forceful return of poverty onto the international development agenda credited to World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)” (Chisinga, 2007:3). The basis of the discussion of social protection as a new model for development derives from the vision of the initiative as a path to sustainable economic development due to its holistic approach to poverty eradication and capability deprivation (Taylor, 2008)."In Africa, where pre-existing welfare regimes are often absent or comparatively very weak, the origins of cash transfer schemes stem from the search for alternatives to food and input transfers to tackle hunger"(Slater,2011:256). In the sub-Saharan region, for example, countries such as South Africa, Zambia, Kenya, Namibia and Malawi have similarly embraced the trend by adopting social grants and cash transfers as a solution to poverty and capability deprivation. Malawi, portrays a vivid image of a country with little resources for 17 million inhabitants, leaving more than half of the population below the poverty line (Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MDGS) III report (2017). The goal of the Malawi Social Cash Transfer Program (SCTP) is to reduce poverty, hunger and increase school enrolment among the poorest 10% of households. Targeting the correct 10% is key to the success of the program. The World Bank Group, Malawi Poverty Assessment (2016), calls into question the likelihood of precisely targeting the chronically poor people in such initiatives. On the other hand, Houssou et al., 2007 and Slater, 2011 insist on the need to evaluate the foresee-ability of contextual intervention programs, especially if a country does not have the capacity for widespread social grants as targeting becomes a matter of concern. The idea is that social cash transfers will be successful in reducing poverty if the right individuals are targeted. Considering the high poverty rate in Malawi and the gaps between the lower poverty deciles and the income profile are marginal (Ellis, 2008), how accurate is the decentralized targeting process? Based on this rationale, this exploratory research explored and highlights the complexities in targeting of beneficiaries in the program which, as a result has contributed to the derailment of the program. Findings show that the Government of Malawi (GoM) has overlooked the necessary control mechanisms to achieve effective targeting. As such, the study identifies anomalies in the targeting process that play a significant role in affecting the achievement of the goal of the program. Thus, SCTP falls short of combating poverty in a multi-dimensional manner.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of study-abroad students: how the 'self' articulates experiences and encounters in different cultural settings(2016) Chingore, Tatenda Millicent Nichole; Sitas, AriTwenty-first century globalisation has brought with it, distinction among students through the Internationalisation of Higher Education (IHE). The effects of globalization and the IHE has been categorised as "preparing students for the globalizing world, suggesting new pedagogies and institutional settings that nurture 'global consciousness'" (Mansilla & Gardner, 2007: 56.) With the increase in mobility and hyper-connectivity, an education has become more than what is taught within the confines of a classroom or university. Studying abroad has become a significant component within the academic arena that allows students the privilege and opportunity to develop intercultural competence through first-hand experience This study seeks to explore the articulation of experiences and encounters from the perspective of the study abroad student exposed to cultural settings different from their own. This dissertation will place particular emphasis on the articulation of the responses and approaches taken by individuals of their respective encounters and experiences, using the Circuit of Culture as a link drawing together the themes (Re)Construction of Self Identity; 'Fitting In' and Adaptation; Developing Intercultural Competence and Society as we now know it, to give a holistic, interpretive understanding into the meanings and outcomes produced by the relationship between the constructions and perceived ideologies of both the study abroad student and the hosts collective. The study is amalgamation of responses from personal narrations given by eight participants, as well as a discussion with four individuals in a focus group from different countries. They reveal the importance of the self, from both the personal and social viewpoint to be able to comprehend the actions and reactions taken to construct, adapt, assimilate and learn from the experience. Discoveries uncover difference as a component that exists between the self and the other in a number of ways through how they classify and identify each other. As a result, slight but significant changes in perceptions can be noted.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the role of firearms control laws in South African society(1973) Zazeraj, Victor John; Van Zyl Slabbert, FrederikThis study had as its purpose an attempt to establish on empirical grounds the role firearms control laws play in South African society. A holist methodological position was adopted from among the alternatives available for scientific social research, and the structural-functional theoretical framework of the main line tradition was employed for the purposes of the analysis. Accordingly, legislation was defined as serving a primarily integrative function in society, (integration being functionally one of four system imperatives), by translating prevailing values and norms into a stable, attributive code. A discussion of general historical and contemporary perspectives related to purpose(s), role, and efficacy of restrictive firearms legislation preceded a survey of the development of gun controls in the Republic of South Africa. Current legislative provisions in this context were then dealt with in some detail. Research into the official documentary reports of the S.A. Department of Statistics (i.e., the Report on Deaths, and Statistics of Offences), and the Annual Report of the Commissioner of the South African Pol ice, covering a period of years, was carried out and although some of the required statistical information was inadequate, or entirely non-existent, it was finally concluded on the basis of available evidence that such legislation is enacted in this society on the assumption that it serves the purposes of crime reduction and civil peace. This assumption was shown to be empirically unsupported, and an alternative approach was called for in terms of which legislators should place greater positive emphasis on the individual right to keep and bear arms. It was concluded that such a shift of emphasis would more effectively promote the defined role of legislation in South African society.
- ItemOpen AccessAn analysis of the socio-political role of the Roman Catholic Church in contemporary South Africa(1991) Law, Lois; Goldberg, MelvinThis study attempts an analysis of the form and content of the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church in South Africa to the policy and practice of apartheid during the period 1948-1989. It is argued that the divisions, tensions and contradictions of the Catholic Church reflect the socially divided character of the broader society. It is suggested that some of the policies, teachings and social practice of the South African Catholic Church serve to reproduce and reinforce the existing societal relations of domination, thus contributing to the hegemony of the dominant social group, while others undermine the same and point toward a transformation of social relations in a democratic society. In some instances the Church has contributed to the nascent hegemony of the dominated group. Literature focusing on the Catholic Church during times of social upheaval is reviewed. Recent analyses of the role of the Christian Churches in apartheid South Africa are considered. Various approaches to the Sociology of Religion are discussed and the relevance of a contextual approach to the analysis of the Church is argued. Gramsci's concept of hegemony as a tool of political analysis is discussed. A brief .historical overview of the Catholic Church in South Africa is given. It is contended that the Catholic Church in South Africa must be understood in terms of its colonial, missionary and racist history. An ecclesiological overview of the Roman Catholic Church in terms of its - history, traditions, organization, authority structures, governing procedures and beliefs is sketched. The ·social Teaching' of the Catholic Church during the twentieth century is outlined. The importance of the Second Vatican Council, the emergence of the Theology of Liberation and the increasing centrality of social justice in Church teachings is discussed. The implications of these developments for the pastoral practice of the Church is emphasized. The response of the Catholic Church to the introduction and implementation of 'separate development' is considered. Content analysis is used as a research method. The study therefore falls within the realm of hermeneutic or interpretative sociology. The gradual transition from an attitude of paternalism to committed involvement in the anti-apartheid struggle is traced. The Catholic Church's response to the Bantu Education Act, which was the primary focus of its opposition to apartheid in the 1950's, is evaluated. The challenge of the Black Consciousness movement is acknowledged. It is argued that the realities of apartheid society have had a profound impact on the Church, severely compromising its unity. The related processes of reform, repression and resistance are examined. It emerges that while the Church's championship of human rights has been unequivocal, its support for some of the strategies employed in the struggle against apartheid has been more tentative. It is argued that the Catholic Church's participation in the anti-apartheid struggle has facilitated a growth in ecumenism and increased contact with secular organizations. The Catholic Church has become part of a broad anti- apartheid alliance. It is suggested that while there have been important changes in the Church's self-understanding and perception of its role in, and pastoral mission to, society, these changes have been uneven and ambiguous. They have not been reflected throughout the Church and have underlined the divisions within the Church. There has been considerable reluctance on the part of many white Catholics to endorse the anti-apartheid stance of the hierarchy. However, the S.A.C.B.C.'s commitment to social justice is in tune with modern Catholic social teaching. Finally, it is argued that the Catholic Church has challenged white domination and undermined the hegemony of apartheid in South African society.
- ItemOpen Access‘Asihlali Phantsi!': a study of agency among isiXhosa-speaking women traders in a Cape Town township(2020) Mpofu-Mketwa, Tsitsi Jane; de Wet, JacquesThis study examined how isiXhosa-speaking women street traders in Cape Town's Langa Township exercised agency in responding to similar structural constraints and opportunities that affected their livelihoods. Drawing on Giddens's Structuration Theory and Sen's Capabilities Approach, I unpacked and conceptualised agency as five dimensions (reflexivity, motivation, rationality, purposive action and transformative capacity). This analytical framework was then used to assess the ways in which women from a poor township community exercised their agency as street traders. A case study methodology (n=25) was adopted using participant observation and in-depth interviews. Miles and Huberman's thematic coding approach guided the qualitative analysis. The study found that structurally imposed constraints were rooted in class, multiple sources of power dynamics, and material constraints related to health; while opportunities emanated from market mechanisms of supply and demand, community social support systems in the form of social capital and social networks, family support and statutory social welfare programmes. Other key findings included resistance to patriarchy, cultural norms and practices, such as submission to abusive partners and unreasonable demands from extended family members. The findings report structure and agency as mutually constitutive in so far as familial circumstances, previous work experience, social capital, educational achievements and temporality either reinforced or diminished the participants' agency. Three profiles of agency among the women traders emerged from the data. The profiles demonstrated varying degrees of enablement (most enabled, moderately enabled and least enabled) and that individual agency was a distinguishing factor. Reflexivity, as a dimension of agency, presented as more fluid and malleable than the other four dimensions. The findings show that agency is reasonably elastic and it can expand capabilities and opportunities for enablement. Finally, the study proposed a diagnostic tool for assessing and enhancing agency with potential applications in entrepreneurial training for development. My study contributes to a theoretical understanding of the concept of agency, the role it plays in development at a micro-level and criteria for assessment. Furthermore, lessons learnt from the profiles can be applied to development practice and entrepreneurial training among African women traders.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing the people's navy : gender transformation and the South African Navy(2007) Taylor, Simon; Seegers, AnnetteThe South African Navy is required to implement the principle of gender equality as part of its transformation. This forms part of a broader project of transformation in South Africa, the Navy is one aspect of this. The dissertation is located in the field of Civil-Military Relations. The assessment of transformation is done by first, understanding the complex term transformation and its how it has been applied to the military. Second, the policies requiring transformation in the Department of Defence and the military are examined drawing on the Constitution, the White Paper on Defence, the Defence Review Process and numerous Parliamentary resources, including interviews with relevant Members of Parliament. To assess the Navy, three Naval Orders are examined (Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action, Social Responsibility, and Gender Transformation), which together constitute the Navy's policies regarding Gender Transformation. The assessment is furthered by the examination of the numbers of women serving in the Navy and the rank distribution. These statistics are then compared with: similar data from 1999; the relative situation to men in the Navy; the racial profile of the Navy; the different service arms; and to other navies. In comparison to the other service arms and international standards, the Navy's transformation has progressed well.
- ItemOpen AccessAn assessment of a quick response case study in an apparel textile pipeline in the Western Cape(2001) Vlok, Etienne Doyle; Maree, JohannThe aim of this thesis was to establish whether South African companies implementing Quick Response in an apparel textile pipeline moved towards flexible specialisation and post-Fordism or a neo-Fordist method of production. I also determined whether these companies implemented Quick Response according to the theory or to suit their environment. Manufacturing 6 Fordism or mass production became the most important manufacturing system in the early 20th century. When it was in crisis a new era, post-Fordism, was born. The change in manufacturing in post-Fordism was labelled flexible specialisation. It utilises new technology and flexible ways of organising work to help companies become more competitive. However, some people believed the new era was not new, but rather a modification of Fordism. They called this modified system neoFordism, consisting of both Fordist and post-Fordist features. The clothing and textile industries South Africa's textile and clothing industries are faced with increased competition due to the country's re-entry into the world economy and the subsequent drop in tariffs. One way for textile and clothing companies to compete is by developing a Quick Response approach - a type of flexible specialisation. It could help these companies fight cheaper imports as it cuts lead times and allows companies to use their local proximity to deliver the right products at the right time. Methodology using qualitative research methods I attempted to describe Quick Response in this pipeline by finding out what it is, what its features are, how it is implemented and what its effects are. I combined descriptive and explanatory elements in my study. I used semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions to interview workers, middle and upper management of the companies in the pipeline. I also used nonparticipant observation by attending meetings these companies held. Quick Response or not? The system that this pipeline implemented has some of the main trademarks of Quick Response. The companies improved their relationships, shared some information, cut the lead times, and relied on sales figures to determine production. All of this resulted in an increase in sales, Quick Response's ultimate goal. However, this system lacked many features of Quick Response such as worker involvement, full information sharing, Pareto improving measures to ensure no company is worse off than before, and cutting lead times constantly. Despite this I still believe this system could be classified as Quick Response as it was mainly about cutting lead times and this pipeline did that in a small way. Post- or neo-Fordism? Although these companies introduced elements of Quick Response, Fordist production features were still evident. These include manufacturing with long runs, just-in-case or safety stock, power differentials, mistrust, managerial prerogative, and large wage gaps. It is clear that Quick Response as described in the theory is a type of flexible specialisation, which is the change in manufacturing in the post-Fordist era. However, the version used in this pipeline contained many elements of Fordist production combined with post-Fordist methods. So the conclusion is that the companies who implemented Quick Response moved towards a neo-Fordist method of production. Only when they import Quick Response as an integrated package might their methods be described as post-Fordist.
- ItemOpen AccessThe assessment of early parenting orientation(1999) Evans, Janet; Lea, Susan; Le Grange, DanielThis study focuses on parenting styles as adopted by men and women during pregnancy and early parenthood. Parenting style is examined following the categories outlined by Raphael-Left's model (1983, 1985b, 1991 ). The sample consisted of 57 women and 39 men. Mailed, self administered questionnaires were used with all participants. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires devised by Raphael-Left (1983, 1985b, 1991) are examined. The study also assesses the stability of these orientations from the beginning of pregnancy into early parenthood. The results of the psychometric evaluation reveal that the questionnaires are not internally consistent. Further, a model consisting of a continuum of parenting style is not supported. The stability of parental orientation over time was not established, parenting style appears to change particularly after childbirth.
- ItemOpen AccessAt the crossroads of the identity (re)construction process: an analysis of 'fateful moments' in the lives of Coloured students within an equity development programme at UCT(2015) Nomdo, Gideon John; Graaff, JohannSociology has made valuable contributions in the area of identity theory. Recent research into the identity transformation process has seen much emphasis being placed on developing specific conceptual tools to unpack the variable nature of these transformations. These conceptual tools have been extremely efficient. Their focus, however, has tended to be either too macro-social or micro-social at times. As a result, not enough attention has been given to developing existing conceptual tools that can address individual identity transformations at both the macro and micro levels. This study attempts to address this need. What is illustrated here is the extent to which the application of a particular conceptual tool can be enriched by selectively drawing on other identity concepts so as to offer a fuller and more context-laden understanding of the identity transformation process. In this study I use Anthony Giddens' (1991) notion of 'fateful moments' as an anchor concept. Giddens uses this concept to unpack the existential basis of identity transformations. I draw on additional concepts from cognitive, lifespan and phenomenological approaches to identity and show how these can be used conjunctively to enhance the efficiency of the 'fateful moment' concept for exploring the existential dimension of identity transformations. I demonstrate the use of this 'fateful moment' concept by employing it to examine the identity transformations undergone by three Coloured students participating in an equity development programme at the University of Cape Town (a historically White institution). I show how their location within an equity development programme allows them to engage in a particular type of reflexivity, through which they strive to create meaningful continuity in their lives. My focus was to gain insight into these students' significant relationships with others and to show how these relationships impacted on the ways in which they experienced their sense of location in the world. As a result, the issue of 'self' and the desire on the part of the research participants to locate an 'authentic self' became an important driver in the research process. What is illustrated, therefore, is how an existential focus is able to offer new perspectives on Coloured identity, especially in relation to its inclusion under the racial category of 'Black' in post-apartheid SA. This thesis adopts a qualitative case study approach. The experiences of three Coloured UCT students are presented as three individual case studies. I examine their home, school and university contexts to develop particular biographical narratives for each of them, so as to better locate the circumstances under which their 'fateful moments' occur and the impact thereof on their sense of self. An in-depth qualitative analysis of each of these students' identity transformation experiences was conducted, which revealed new ways in which to think about, use and define the 'fateful moment' concept. My data included reflective essays, semi-structured interviews and observational field notes. I used my initial analysis of the reflective essays and observation notes as a means to develop some of the more open-ended interview questions. The interviews therefore served as a means of triangulating the data. I drew on a combination of content analysis and constructivist grounded theory for analysing the data. I established that these students' continued classification as Coloured in their everyday social interactions, impacted negatively on their perceptions of self. The inclusion of Coloured in the overarching descriptive category of Black, surfaced as a particular source of contention, resentment and guilt for the Coloured students represented here. These students were all searching for a way of expressing an authentic sense of self that was unencumbered by the restrictive and limited possibilities that was bound up in traditional constructions of Coloured identity in SA. What becomes apparent is that the 'fateful moment' concept, when used in conjunction with other selected theoretical perspectives, offers a much more nuanced understanding of the identity transformation process. As such, the strategic use of 'fateful moments' as illustrated in its application to Coloured identity in this thesis, allows us to get a much better understanding of how race feels, thereby adding value to the way in which sociological theory constructs meaning in the world. The conceptual framework for unpacking identity transformation developed here, makes available a particular sociological lens for assessing and measuring the transformational impact of equity development programmes at institutions of higher education. It also allows a more critical stance to be developed towards the tendency to homogenise the Black South African student experience. Doing so allows institutions the space to reflect more deeply on how to strategise around issues of social justice, equity and transformation.